Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Antonenko Darya Alekseevna

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Kuban State Agrarian University

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Articles count: 2

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abstract 1211607136 issue 121 pp. 2136 – 2164 30.09.2016 ru 76
During the last century, in the biosphere occur expressed processes of soil degradation due to anthropogenic influence, which seriously change of top layer of soil. The agricultural landscape is allocated of noticeable accumulation of various wastes at expense of growing of food crops and grazing of farm animals, as well as due to mineral wastes generated in process production of building materials and fertilizers from natural raw. According to physical and chemical characteristics of wastes of plant origin and natural-raw wastes constitute a non-toxic highly dispersed connection with an admixture of different undecomposed organic and mineral substances. Specificity of physical state is determined there of high dispersion, which is represented by system particles of colloidal substances distributed in various environments. Colloids of natural-raw wastes are characterized by a low rate of diffusion; do not penetrate finely porous membrane of cell structures, different very nonequilibrium insolubility and specific chemical composition. For example, phosphogypsum is characterized by high concentration of sulfur and calcium, and trace amounts of entire table of D.I. Mendeleev. Organic wastes are made by variety of chemical compounds and high concentration of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and other organic substances
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abstract 1341710003 issue 134 pp. 27 – 38 29.12.2017 ru 28
Using of organomineral composts to preserve fertility and restore ecological functions of chernozem soils in the Krasnodar territory is necessary. Their composition depends on the properties of chernozem soils and can include various wastes of industry and agriculture. The main component of compost can be organic wastes of livestock, and plant residues and mineral additives are additional compost components. Peculiarities of the interaction of the components of the organomineralic mixture, which including manure of cattle and phosphogypsum, are considered in the work. In the interaction of organic particles of cattle manure and phosphogypsum particles, structural formations are formed where the phosphogypsum particles are enveloped by particles of cattle manure. The experience of composting this organomineral mixture with various crop residues of crops was carried out. Plant residues according to the intensity of decomposition in composts can be represented in the next row, beginning with more decomposed ones: sugar beet> winter wheat> winter barley> corn> sunflower. The composts obtained were characterized by a well-aggregated structure with a predominance of particles 1-2 mm in diameter, good aeration, low density (1.01-1.10 g / cm3), and favorable humidity (22-25%). The structural factor of composts with different plant residues ranged from 3.1 to 4.3 units. The best physical properties were compost, including plant residues of sugar beet, the worst - sunflower. The combination of an organomineral mixture with various plant residues contributed to a decrease in alkalinity of the substrate, a slowing of the mineralization of organic matter, restraint of ammonification processes, and an increase in the content of total nitrogen and phosphorus