Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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abstract 1501906020 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 130
The article presents a factorial model for determining the needs of lactating cows in essential amino acids. The algorithm of the model uses fragments from the NRC – 2001 models [39], CNCPS – 200 [60], and research materials published in the world literature. Instead of the transformation coefficients of the metabolizable lysine and methionine for milk production equal to 0.85 and 1.00, respectively, by the CNCPS, the coefficients 0.68 and 0.66 were used according to Doepel et al., 2004 [49] and the authors' own data [69]. Norms obtained using this model in lysine and methionine in milk production and maintenance in percentage of metabolizable protein (MP) were 7.28 and 2.4%, which is identical to the NRC – 2001 standards, equal to 7.2 and 2.4 % respectively, obtained by dose – response method based on dozens of experiments. The norm of histidine was 3.5%, which closely corresponds to the indicator of 2.4 and 2.7 % MP [74], obtained by the incremental addition method. This indicates that the presented model is distinguished by sufficiently high accuracy and is comparable with the models developed by the dose – response method. However, the determination of the need of cows for amino acids in this model is much less expensive than the dose – response method. The need for the absolute amount of metabolizable essential amino acids (MEAA) for milk production (35 kg/d, yield milk protein 1103 gytt6) and maintenance cow - 600 kg, g/d: lysine - 178, methionine - 59, arginine - 119, histidine - 60, isoleucine - 138, leucine - 248, phenylalanine - 152, threonine - 134, tryptophan - 38, valine - 174; the need for only milk production, g/d: 130; 42; 81; 42; 95; 175; 98; 74; 25; 112; the need for only maintenance, g/d: 50; 16; 38; 20; 43; 73; 54; 60; 14; 64; the need for 1 kg of milk (31.5 g of protein) g/kg: 3.7; 1.2; 2.3; 1.2; 2.7; 5.0; 2.8; 2.1; 0.7; 3.2; need to maintain, g / kg 0.75: 0.41; 0.14; 0.31; 0.16; 0.35; 0.60; 0.44; 0.50; 0.11; 0.53. In addition, the article presents the norms of amino acids per 1 kg of dry matter (DM) ration. However, the proposed standards need a comprehensive assessment in the research and practice of dairy farming. Research is needed to improve the models and predict the MEAA in the rations in the following areas: studying the metabolism of amino acids in the body of cows and determining their costs for maintaining the digestive tract, tissues and organs, refining, on this basis, the utilization of amino acids for milk protein production and maintenance; the development of ideal amino-acid profile of low-protein diets, both due to the adjustment of natural ingredients, and through the use of amino acid preparations that are protected from disintegration in the rumen
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abstract 1501906021 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 127
The article deals with angiogenesis of squamous papillomas of dogs, which is a process of formation of blood vessels, providing neovascularization of tumors with their progression. The differentiation of papillomas depending on morphological and histological features was carried out, progressive and hyperkeratinized types were identified, which determine the stage of development and transition from one to another in the process of tumor growth. It is noted that with the progression of papillomas, the area of the constituent elements of the tumor increases, both due to the stroma and due to the parenchyma, but the stromal-parenchymal ratio changes in the direction of increasing the parenchymal component. Analysis of angiogenesis showed heterogeneity of the isolated vessels, both within the stromal component of papillomas, and depending on the type of tumors. There are three types of vessels – small, medium and large, there is a similar ratio of different types of vessels, regardless of the type of papillomas. Localization of vessels in the stroma depending on belonging to the selected species was studied. The total area of the section of blood vessels with cancer increases, and the ratio of the total area of the section of blood vessels to the area of the stroma is almost at the same level, which determines the dependence of the increase in the stromal component of papillomas from angiogenesis
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abstract 1501906027 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 44
The experiment has examined the effect of various agricultural technologies on the yield of winter wheat, depending on the factors studied. The studies were conducted at the experimental station of the Kuban State Agrarian University under the conditions of multifactor multi-year monitoring. The experiment was carried out in a typical for the zone 11-field grain-grass-tilled crop rotation. In this paper, we considered some of the elements of the winter wheat cultivation technology, the Brigade variety using different doses of fertilizers (N50P50K120 and N100P100K240) on four tillage options (plowing, chisel loosening, disc peeling and zero tillage). On the basis of the conducted research, it has been established that in order to obtain a stable harvest of winter wheat grain, higher doses of mineral fertilizers should be applied, which also ensures high indicators of grain quality. The considered agrotechnical methods led to a positive change in crop structure and grain quality
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abstract 1501906028 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 66
Smallpox of turkey is a viral, slowly extending disease. It pathogenetically proceeds in a dermatotropic way, skin lesions are characterized primarily by two signs or focal necrotic focus centers or diphtheritic inflammation of mucous membranes, often of the upper respiratory tract. Etiological factor in smallpox are dermatotropic epitheliogenic viruses, the family of Avipoxvirus of Poxviridae. The purpose of this work was studying the features of clinic and the pathomorphological changes at smallpox at turkeys in the context of diagnostics methods and also generalization of treatment-and-prophylactic actions at this pathology. The diseased bird is the main source of infection. In addition, the smallpox virus particles can be spread by people providing care for the birds, indoor air, food, bedding material, excrement. Diagnosis of smallpox takes into account the symptoms; if an autopsy was performed, the result of a pathological pattern as well. Additionally, we can conduct a research of histological sections. Confirmation of diagnosis can be performed by a virological study and the blood serum. In accordance with the pathogenesis of smallpox, there is a classic skin form and diphtheritic. There may be a combination of the above manifestations of smallpox, therefore we can record the mixed form, in some cases, it may be atypical. Pathoanatomical changes come down to defeat a respiratory system of bodies, the upper airways, at the complicated forms there may be noted lesions in the internal organs. Laboratory methods include identification of the virus in the pathological material, as well as additional histological and virological studies using chicken embryos and bioassays. Treatment is difficult and not always effective. The main preventive measure against smallpox in turkey is vaccination, basic applied biologics are: Avivac-pox" strain "K", "Ospovat, Vectorman FP-MG". Prevention of smallpox includes the implementation of general veterinary and sanitary rules in conjunction with the mandatory special prevention. When planning measures to prevent the spread of smallpox, conditions are created to eliminate pathways of transmission of the pathogen – disinfection, disinsection and deratization, as well as vaccination of all susceptible livestock
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abstract 1501906004 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru
This article discusses some elements of the Brigade cultivating winter wheat varieties using different doses of fertilizers (N50P50K120 and N100P100K240) in four tillage options (plowing, chisel loosening, disc chopping and zero treatment). The experiment was conducted in a multifactorial stationary conditions. The considered agrotechnical techniques have led to a change in the density, hardness and structural composition of the soil. The most optimal values of these parameters have been obtained by using plowing and chiseling
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abstract 1491905001 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 136
The urgency of the task in creating a reliable plant protection system is the improvement and development of new technologies for spraying crops on the basis of fundamentally new agricultural requirements at a higher quality level, increasing productivity, reducing energy costs and greening protective measures. Pneumatic slotted sprayers have great design capabilities allowing obtaining operating parameters necessary for the specific task of the sprayer. In this regard, we have proposed a technological scheme of the sprayer in the garden-vineyard version. To do this, the sprayers are placed in pneumatic ducts of the fans mounted on the sprayers. It is possible to reduce energy and resource costs, to achieve high quality indicators of the process and to increase the level of environmental friendliness by developing technical means for ultra-low-volume spraying. The principal novelty in solving the problem of ultra-low volume spraying is the use of KubSAU design pneumatic sprayers on the sprayer, and the scheme of the technological process, allowing the reduction of the working fluid and pesticides doses rate, resulting in reduced operating costs to support operations: preparation of working fluids and filling the sprayers. To process two rows simultaneously, it is possible to use sprayers equipped with two centrifugal fans with the installation of pneumatic slit sprayers with fixation in the ducts that they overlap, forcing the air from the fan to pass through the atomizer body, mixing with drops of working fluid. In this case, the speed of the air-droplet jets increases and more efficient use of the air jet from the fan occur. Along with the use of sprayers, equipped with KubSAU design pneumatic sprayers, to combat pests and diseases, we propose to use a sprayer to combat weeds in the trunk area of perennial plantations. Thus we have a family of ultra-low volume sprayers with pneumatic slotted sprayers of the Kuban State Agrarian University design
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abstract 1491905002 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 71
The article presents the results of a study of the influence of the processing method before storage on the commercial quality of carrot roots during storage. The object of the research was carrot of the Abaco variety. Objects of study were stored for 21 days at + (25 ± 1) ° C and 56 days at + (2 ± 1) ° C. Roots were treated with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF ELF) and Vitaplan biopreparation separately and in combination. As a result of the research, it was established that the complex treatment of EMF ELF and biopreparation allows increasing the yield of standard carrot products compared to the control: 11.8% at storage temperature + (2 ± 1) ° C, 24.1% at storage temperature + (25 ± 1) ° C. A reduction in the total losses of carrots, treated with complex EMF ELF and biological product, was found by 5.8% at storage temperature + (2 ± 1) ° C and by 12.4% at storage temperature + (25 ± 1) ° C
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abstract 1491905011 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 70
One of the most important state tasks in the world is the production of grain in the most profitable way. The use of biological products in the cultivation of grain is very important in our time. Identification of the effectiveness of the use of biological products will allow enterprises growing winter wheat to determine the need for their use. The study was conducted in 2015-2018 in the field areas of the peasant farm called "Yurchenko", located in the Alexanderovsky district of the Stavropol region, in the area of unstable moisture on dark chestnut soils. Winter wheat is cultivated using biological products on the farm, using biopreparation Vimpel with drugs of fungicidal action of Alirin B and Alirin C - 522 plants per 1m2. The use of biological products of fungicidal action allowed to reduce the activity of fungal diseases, and Vimpel biopreparation increased plant nutrition. After that, this processing scheme allowed to obtain a higher mass of grains in the ear -1.01 g, which contributed to a higher yield. The processing plan of Vimpel and biological product a biological product of fungicidal activity Gliocladium is slightly lower than Vimpel + Alirin B + Alirin With, the number of productive stems before harvesting – 518 plants per m2 and weight of grains - 1.0 g. The study used field and laboratory methods. Cultivation of winter wheat using biological products is unprofitable in comparison with the control. Despite the increase in the yield and quality of grain, the cost of production is much higher than in the control sowing, which is due to the high cost of drugs and additional costs for their use
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abstract 1491905012 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 39
Issues associated with the use of combined units in the preparation of the soil are relevant and of scientific and practical interest. Relevance increases when it comes to the cultivation of the main crop - winter wheat. In this regard, the presented results on the effectiveness of the use of combined units in the preparation of soil for winter crops are important. They are important primarily from a practical point of view. Experimental studies were conducted in the conditions of many years of stationary experience in the FSUE "ANC" Donskoy ", Zernograd, Rostov Region and in the Krasnodar region, LLC "Step". The efficiency of the use of combined units KUM-4, APK-4, developed at SKNIIMESH, now FSUE “ANC “Donskoy” in the cultivation of winter barley and winter wheat is considered. The technological process of tillage using combined units consists of several technological operations performed simultaneously. Disk working bodies chop plant residues and destroy weeds. At the same time, a network of cracks in the underlying soil horizons is laid. Next are flat-cutting working bodies that loosen the soil already at the set depth. There is a cutting of the root system of weeds, loosening the remaining non-loosened soil layer to the required depth, the formation of a flat bottom of the “furrow”, the separation of erosion-hazardous soil particles to the bottom of the furrow. Next, a roller - a compactor - compactor enters the work, which provides regrinding of soil lumps on the surface and subcompaction of the treated layer. The last in the process chain is a mulch roller, which ensures the formation of a compacted seed bed for seeds with simultaneous mulching of the compacted soil layer. The use of combined units in the technologies of cultivation of winter barley and wheat allowed to achieve a reduction in the number of technological operations by 1,5-2,5 times, an increase in the productivity of winter wheat by 0,4 t / ha (9%), a reduction in fuel consumption by 40%, operating costs 1,4 times with the economic effect of 1500 rubles / ha and the profitability of production of 140%
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abstract 1491905015 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 35
Sommelier evaluates the quality of wine on the basis of their subjective feelings. At the same time, what the sommelier says when evaluating wine, it is difficult or impossible to rationally understand for the uninitiated to this art. The process of assessing the quality of wine by sommelier can not be formalized and is carried out entirely at the sensual level. Sometimes, different sommeliers differently evaluate the same wine poured from the same barrel into bottles of different prestige, with stickers differing in the number of stars. This raises at least two legitimate and natural questions. The first question is whether any subjective sommelier evaluations of the quality of wine are connected with its objective physical and chemical properties? The second question arises in the case of a positive answer to the first one: is it possible to analyze the objective methods of physical and chemical properties of wine to predict its subjective assessment by various sommeliers or some "generalized sommelier", generalizing many such subjective assessments? This article is devoted to obtaining reasoned answers to these questions. The purpose of this work, which is of great scientific and practical interest, is to create a model that provides an automated assessment of the quality of wine based on the analysis of its objective physical and chemical properties, coinciding with its sommelier-evaluation. To achieve this goal, we use Automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis) and its software tools – the intelligent system called "Eidos". A detailed numerical example based on 1599 real-world examples of sommelier evaluation of wine quality with known physical and chemical properties is considered. In addition to the answer to the two questions in the article, there is a study of the created system-cognitive model