Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Slavyanov Andrey Stanislavovich

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associated professor

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Bauman Moscow State Technical University
   

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Articles count: 14

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234 kb

USE OF FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF DISTRIBUTION OF DUAL-USE SPACE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ECONOMY OF THE BUDGETARY EXPENSES

abstract 1301706058 issue 130 pp. 819 – 832 30.06.2017 ru 439
The practice of separate financing of projects of civil and defensive nature, which has been developed in Russia, requires, in the conditions of an aggravation of an international situation, increase in costs for carrying out researches and developments what to go a heavy burden on the federal budget. The analysis of international experience shows that industrially developed countries successfully solved this problem by means of distribution of dual-use technologies. The special effect is reached in space activities where dual-use technologies are widely used in the organization of communication, broadcasting and monitoring of the land surface. In the article, policy of usage of military technologies in civil sector of economy of the USA, Germany and China is analyzed. The policy of distribution of dual-use technologies leads to decrease in load of the budget and promotes attraction of a private equity in researches and developments. The main directions are conversion, sale of information from military companions to the commercial organizations and acquisition by military of information from commercial companions here. Backwardness of the market relations, impracticality of controlling mechanisms, developments and carrying out scientific and technical policy and other problems can become the main obstacle in a way to distribution of dual-use technologies in Russia. However, instability of the revenues of the Russian budget caused by volatility of the prices of energy resources and other external factors puts the most important priority of national economic policy development and distribution of double technologies
223 kb

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER MODELS BETWEEN THE DEFENSE AND CIVIL SECTOR OF ECONOMY

abstract 1602006010 issue 160 pp. 115 – 129 30.06.2020 ru 20
The article considers the problem of increasing the efficiency of budget expenditures due to the transfer of military technology to the civilian sector of the economy. An analysis of foreign experience has shown that private companies are widely involved in a number of states to solve some of the infrastructure problems in the military sphere. In the USA, private companies provide communications and provide other information services to state power structures, which makes it possible to develop private business on the one hand and save budget expenses on the other. An analysis of domestic experience has shown that the use of military technologies for the production of civilian products and services in some cases can significantly save time and other resources. A model for the interaction of civilian companies with the defense complex and a diffusion model of military technologies have been developed. The article proposes creation of new structures that solve the problems of adapting military technologies to the requirements of civilian customers, as well as a database of adapted technologies and a technical investment center that supports small and medium-sized enterprises in the acquisition of equipment and technical documentation. The authors believe that the approaches proposed in the article to solving the problem of technology transfer will stimulate innovative activity in the country, reduce import dependence and increase the efficiency of budget expenditures
322 kb

TECHNOLOGICAL WAYS IN INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMY

abstract 1261702029 issue 126 pp. 386 – 402 28.02.2017 ru 223
In the article we consider problems of transition of an economic system to the new technological way. Success depends on degree of readiness of system for institutional changes and availability of necessary resources. Assessment of a condition of system plays an important role in the choice of management decisions on its upgrade. Delay with transition to new technological way or, on the contrary, its stimulation in system, not ready to changes, leads to serious, negative consequences for the reformed economy. Change of technological way leads to the release of capital which goes to the financial markets, entering crisis chaos into the system. The task of the state consists in timely reaction on developed, during transition to new way, a situation and the direction of financial flows in key technologies of new way. The new system of assessment of a condition of system and a stabilization effort is offered during the change of technological way
277 kb

STRATEGY OF RETRO INNOVATIONS IN IMPORT SUBSTITUTION

abstract 1531909026 issue 153 pp. 257 – 270 29.11.2019 ru 7
Unfavorable changes in exchange rates, sanctions restrictions on the supply to Russia of spare parts necessary for the repair and maintenance of previously imported equipment have led to a significant reduction in the service life of imported machinery and equipment. For the solution, the authors propose to implement the strategy of retro-innovations providing the development of new technologies maintaining in working condition of machinery and equipment in conditions of shortage of spare parts and consumables. To do this, it is necessary to develop technologies for the restoration of complex technical devices in order to extend their service life under the restrictions created by the financial market and sanctions policy. The study of the problem was carried out on the example of the operation of trucks of foreign production, the evaluation of engine life and analyzed the structure of the market. On the basis of the obtained results, a model was proposed, on the basis of which it is possible to form a plan for the production of spare parts for high-quality engine repair by domestic enterprises. The strategy of retro-innovations does not solve all the problems of import substitution, but it allows to increase the level of economic security of strategically important economic activities, it creates jobs and provides an opportunity to significantly extend the life of expensive and complex technical devices
190 kb

ROLE OF THE FOREIGN FACTOR IN INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

abstract 1121508151 issue 112 pp. 2149 – 2164 30.10.2015 ru 560
Influence of a foreign factor on innovative development of the countries isn't unambiguous, for Russia the foreign capital was rather limiting factor, than incentive to development. The analysis of historical experience of development of domestic science and equipment showed that the maximum innovative activity of economy was noted during the centralized science funding and education. The most important for the invention and opening which found the application in domestic economy, were made times of the state control of processes of development and introduction of new types of production and technologies. As a result of the retrospective analysis, it was revealed that innovative processes in domestic economy in the period of economic sanctions and restrictions especially become more active. In this work, it is shown that the market mechanisms providing free movement of technologies, knowledge, scientists and experts have negative impact on the developing national innovative system. Foreign investments by means of which foreign corporations exercise control over the domestic enterprises have special impact on development and promote capital outflow abroad. It is offered to toughen control of the foreign capital within the current legislation and to promote activation of an exchange of scientific and technical information at the international level
554 kb

RISKS AND PRIORITIES OF THE STRATEGY OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL SPACE-ROCKET INDUSTRY

abstract 1291705075 issue 129 pp. 1046 – 1060 31.05.2017 ru 292
Based on risk analysis and consequences of the accidents which have happened to the space equipment from the moment of the beginning of an active phase of space activity, the authors have come to a conclusion that initial stages of life cycle of the project, namely start and a conclusion to an orbit of artificial Earth satellites are subject to the greatest risks. Further functioning of the spacecraft in an orbit is accompanied by much smaller risks, and the least risky are works on service of land infrastructure, processing and information transfer to consumers. Methods of economic protection, which provide acceptance or transfer for a certain payment of risks are not always acceptable for an initial stage of the space project – start and removal into a satellite orbit. Authors suggest evading whenever possible from similar risks for what it is necessary to reduce starts for the benefit of foreign customers. The research of structure of the world space market has shown that such kinds of activity as production of land space infrastructure and rendering services of satellite communication and broadcasting are the most demanded. The market of starting services is gradually reduced in connection with miniaturization of the equipment of satellites and high specific risks of start. The policy of Roskosmos is focused generally on preservation of leadership in starting services which differ in high risks, to the detriment of creation of own satellite group capable to render a wide range of space services to foreign partners. Change of reference points of the strategy of development of the domestic spacerocket industry towards highly profitable and least risky types of space activity is offered
266 kb

PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN THE CONDITIONS OF ACTIVIZATION OF EXTERNAL LIMITING FACTORS FROM POSITIONS OF THERMODYNAMICAL MODEL

abstract 1121508150 issue 112 pp. 2127 – 2148 30.10.2015 ru 690
The analysis of social and economic development of countries in the conditions of the globalization of the world economy which is carried out with the use of thermo-dynamical model showed that interaction of the open economic systems standing on different levels of development can lead to absorption or destruction of one systems by others that finally will lead to "thermal death" in economy (stagnation). The closed economic systems can communicate with other countries by means of international trade. Less developed countries can't compete with industrially developed states and will inevitably get under their influence. The isolated economic systems can develop only in the presence of domestic market, resources and rigid social structure. Introduction of the anti-Russian sanctions and other external factors led to restriction of the influence of the foreign capital. Innovative activity in economy and strengthening of government institutions might be observed as a result. The thermo-dynamical model shows that partial isolation of the developing economic system possessing sufficient production and scientific potential leads to stabilization of its structure and growth of the innovative activity
180 kb

PRODUCTION RISKS AND ECONOMIC HAZARDS OF MODERN HIGH-TECH INDUSTRIES

abstract 1171603019 issue 117 pp. 329 – 345 31.03.2016 ru 201
The article shows that when the plans for the creation and production of modern high-tech innovative products for different purposes it is necessary to consider all possible risks and dangers that accompany modern innovative projects. New approaches to the planning of the development of science-intensive industries should ensure that the accounting and the management of risk situations of the financialeconomic, scientific-technical and industrialtechnological character. One of the promising directions of the domestic output of the industrial complex from its current unstable state is a strategic planning and forecasting of its activity, the development strategies should be based on an evaluation of available enterprise resources, the lack of which leads to stagnation. With active government support the company can successfully implement a strategy of stabilization and progress through cooperation and diversification of production and to make a technological breakthrough in creating high-tech products of new generation
257 kb

PROBLEMS OF RESOURCE ENSURING INNOVATIVE MODERNIZATION OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

abstract 1211607126 issue 121 pp. 1995 – 2009 30.09.2016 ru 307
Realization of the objects set in the Strategy of innovative development of the Russian Federation depends on the level of resource providing the projects and programs entering it. In this work, types of resources and a possibility of their effective use are analyzed. Russia possesses practically all types of natural resources and the labor potential necessary for a country conclusion in leaders of world economy. The problem consists in inefficient use of these resources, which are distributed in the directions, deadlock for our country. During the analysis which is carried out by means of production function it is established that return from investments into mining industry is much lower, than from capital investments in the productions which are turning out competitive, innovative products with high value added. Important task is distribution of resources in the priority directions of Strategy among which there is no astronautics, of a nuclear power engineering, aircraft, those branches where still there is a scientific and technical reserve and there were qualified personnel. The analysis of historical experience showed that the country achieved the greatest success in post-war years when command methods carried out mobilization of all necessary resources for achievement of a goal. In the modern market conditions it is offered to finance the initial stages of life cycle of innovative projects from public funds, and on closing stages to raise funds from investors by means of tools of public-private partnership
349 kb

PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF THE PROGRAM OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROCKET SPACE INDUSTRY

abstract 1281704078 issue 128 pp. 1115 – 1129 28.04.2017 ru 189
In this work, the authors investigate practice of application of a program and a target method in planning and management of the space industry. The carried-out analysis has shown that modern methods of formation of programs in space activity do not correspond to the basic principles of program and target planning. Programs of the leading organizations of Roskosmos represent a set of actions, which are poorly coordinated among themselves. The purposes of the program are washed away or not designated absolutely. Lack of definite purposes of the program leads to problems in a result assessment, to decrease in efficiency of use of resources and lag in development from world technological level. The country has already lost leadership in the market of starting services, problems with rendering communication services and broadcasting are observed, the share of the domestic space-rocket industry in the world market of space services decreases. The authors suggest considering a main objective of the program of innovative development growth of competitiveness of the domestic space-rocket industry measured in increase in a share of the Russian production and services in the world space market. The authors believe that the country has the sufficient innovative potential for reduction of lag from leaders of the world space market
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