Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Neshchadim Nikolay Nikolayevich

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professor

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Kuban State Agrarian University
   

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Articles count: 20

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191 kb

THE ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL EVALUATION OF FUROLAN TREATMENT IN SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1211607092 issue 121 pp. 1504 – 1521 30.09.2016 ru 907
Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops, which are of great economic importance in Russia and in the world. It is very adaptive crop in terms of climatic conditions range, for that reason it is cultivated on a vast territory of the Russian Federation in various weather conditions. Sunflower oil has high nutritional and taste qualities, it is used numerously in food and is applied in various fields of food industry. The biologically active linoleic acid, phosphatides and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, which are of great nutritional value to humans, are contained in the oil. According to its calorific capacity, sunflower oil is on the first place among vegetable oils. Due to biological characteristics of sunflower, the Krasnodar region is the most favorable region of the Russian Federation for obtaining high and stable yields of this crop. However, here the drought is observed during the summer period and it affects adversely the productivity and quality of sunflower seeds. The increasing of resistance to unfavorable weather conditions is possible only based on detailed study of physiological features of productivity formation and seeds quality that is highly important task in view of the current geopolitical situation in Russia. One way of solving this issue is the appliance of the growth regulators, possessing anti-stress activity that improve the quality of sowing seeds and increase the productivity and plant resistance to stressful environmental factors. These drugs include growth regulator called Furolan, which was created in KubGTU and is certified for use in Russia. It is not toxic and is used in nano-dozes, there is no its residual quantities in the products and environment. Furolan has a positive effect on physiological and biochemical processes, improves the productivity of plants, their resistance to unfavorable growing conditions by increasing the resistance to dehydration as well as to the risk of fungal diseases
169 kb

THE INFLUENCE OF LONG-TERM APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS ON THE SUGARINESS OF BEET IN THE CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT WATERING OF THE WESTERN CISCAUCASIA

abstract 1171603083 issue 117 pp. 1288 – 1302 31.03.2016 ru 682
This article presents the experimental material obtained from long-term stationary experiment of GNU "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" in P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. Stationary experience was founded in 1978. It had two ten-course crop rotations and combined graingrass tilled. The ordinary black soil, low-humic, heavy loamy in mechanical composition. The capacity of humus horizon is 113-116 cm with a total content of humus on the date of the experience beginning is 3.88%. Arable (0-30cm) layer was characterized by the following parameters: total nitrogen content - 0.22-0.24, mineral -10,0-10,5mg / kg of soil, total phosphorus-0,16- 0,19%, labile phosphorus - 12,2-12,9mg / kg soil total potassium -1,7-2,0%, exchange potassium- 386mg / kg soil. The degree of saturation of bases is 80-90%. The amount of absorbed bases is 30-40 m ekvg/ 100 g of soil. The reaction of the soil solution is weakly alkaline (PH water 8.0-8.2). The predecessor is winter wheat. General Agrotechnics is recommended for a given soil and climate of region. Solid mineral fertilizer were applied as mineral fertilizers in combination with organic fertilizer in the form of half-decomposed cattle manure. According to agro-climatic zonation the northern zone of the Krasnodar region, where the research was conducted, is related to the zone of insufficient watering with hydrothermal coefficient 0.7-0.9 with an annual rainfall of 350.5 to 899.8 mm. During the autumn and winter period, which determines the accumulation of water in the soil, from 150.3 to 426.8 mm of rain falls or 30,4-68,9% of the annual amount. During the vegetation of sugar beet from germination to harvest -112,0- 588,9mm of rain falls, with an average daily temperature of the air 16,5-20,000С, including the period of the greatest growth of roots and accumulation of sugar from 3.2 to 557.1 of rain falls with air temperature 19,5-28,800С. Hydrothermal index is 0,01-2,83. During the years of the research 19% of years have been characterized as unfavorable (hydrothermal index 0.67), 44% of years as moderate on moisture supply and temperature conditions (hydrothermal index 0.99) and 37% of years as favorable (hydrothermal index 1.05). The generalization of the research results obtained by us in the long-term stationary experiment, allowed us to estimate the impact of different standards and systems of fertilizer on the productivity of sugar beet and sugar content in the roots. On average, during the years of research, the root harvest under the influence of fertilizer amounted to 36,7-45,6 t / ha per unit area with the addition to the control variant, that isn’t manurable, amounted from 6.6 to 15.5 t / ha. The highest yield of root is 43,0-45,6 t / ha which was obtained with systems of fertilizer with complete mineral nutrition
306 kb

EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF DIFFERENT WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE WEST CAUCASUS

abstract 1231609081 issue 123 pp. 1152 – 1181 30.11.2016 ru 678
The influence of the crop rotation type, predecessor and different doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield of two winter wheat cultivars (Lira and Krasnodar 99) was investigated. The investigations were carried out in the North-Kuban Agricultural Experiment Station in two five-crops: grain tillage and grain - grass tillage rotation of prolonged stationary experience. The soil is the black soil, low in humus, powerful, with humus content, depending on the power of nutrition backgrounds in the arable (0-30sm) soil layer is 3,95-4,00%, of mineral nitrogen is 5,9-8,3 mg / kg of soil, of exchangeable potassium is 330-360 mg / kg of soil. It was found that the maximum value of the winter wheat crop structure elements is noticed in the fertilizer systems with complete mineral fertilizer, and the minimum value - with PK and NK. Winter wheat yield depends on the crop rotation of 8-15%; from its predecessor - 15-18% and 27-31% of the fertilizer. Grain quality was generally determined by the dose of fertilizer. High and higher doses of fertilizers contributed to the protein content from 11.7 to 12.3% and fibrin content - 23,5-24,0%. A strong correlation between yield and agronomic methods was determined
293 kb

THE APPLICATION OF FUROLAN PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR AND IMMUNIZER ON SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1211607093 issue 121 pp. 1522 – 1544 30.09.2016 ru 641
Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops, which are of great economic importance in Russia and in the world. It is very adaptive crop in terms of climatic conditions range, for that reason it is cultivated on a vast territory of the Russian Federation in various weather conditions. Sunflower oil has high nutritional and taste qualities, it is used numerously in food and is applied in various fields of food industry. The biologically active linoleic acid, phosphatides and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, which are of great nutritional value to humans, are contained in the oil. According to its calorific capacity, sunflower oil is on the first place among vegetable oils. Due to biological characteristics of sunflower, the Krasnodar region is the most favorable region of the Russian Federation for obtaining high and stable yields of this crop. However, here the drought is observed during the summer period and it affects adversely the productivity and quality of sunflower seeds. The increasing of resistance to unfavorable weather conditions is possible only based on detailed study of physiological features of productivity formation and seeds quality that is highly important task in view of the current geopolitical situation in Russia. One way of solving this issue is the appliance of the growth regulators, possessing anti-stress activity that improve the quality of sowing seeds and increase the productivity and plant resistance to stressful environmental factors. These drugs include growth regulator called Furolan, which was created in KubGTU and is certified for use in Russia. It is not toxic and is used in nano-dozes, there is no its residual quantities in the products and environment. Furolan has a positive effect on physiological and biochemical processes, improves the productivity of plants, their resistance to unfavorable growing conditions by increasing the resistance to dehydration as well as to the risk of fungal diseases
190 kb

CROP YIELD OF WINTER BARLEY GRAIN WITH THE APPLICATION OF VARIOUS GROWING TECHNOLOGIES

abstract 1371803021 issue 137 pp. 106 – 122 30.03.2018 ru 568
The experiment considered the influence of different methods of agricultural technologies on the yield of winter barley in the dependence of the investigated factors. The studies were carried out at the experimental station of Kuban State Agrarian University in the conditions of multifactorial long-term soil monitoring. The experiment was carried out in a typical 11-field grain-grass-tillage crop rotation with the following alternation of crops: alfalfa, alfalfa, winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, winter wheat, corn for grain, winter wheat, sunflower, winter wheat, spring barley with sowing of alfalfa. Stationary experience is represented by the following factors: the level of fertility (factor A); fertilizer system (factor B); plant protection system (factor C) and methods of basic soil cultivation (factor D). The relationship between the influence of the soil fertility level, fertilizer norms, plant protection products, the soil cultivation system and yield, and the crop structure of the perspective winter barley variety ‘Gordey’ were determined. The soil is leached super-heavy light-clay chernozem with an average thickness of the humus horizon - 150 cm. It is found that fertilizer, soil treatment, seeding method, protective means increase the yield of winter barley and positively influences the elements of the yield structure. The yield increase in comparison with the control changed from 10.4 to 26.8 c / ha. The statistical processing data show that the fertilizer system (35.8%) and soil cultivation (27%) had a certain influence on the number of productive stems; the fertilizer system (44.6%) influenced the spike size, the fertilizer system (28%) and the tillage (32.8%) had influence on the amount of grain in the spike and also influenced the mass of grain from the spike
187 kb

BIOENERGETICS ESTIMATION OF LONGTIME FERTILIZERS’ APPLICATION IN THE CROP ROTATION

abstract 1301706061 issue 130 pp. 856 – 872 30.06.2017 ru 563
The influence of the crop rotation type, predecessor and different doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield of winter wheat varieties was investigated and bioenergetics estimation was given. Investigations were carried out in the North-Kuban Agricultural Experiment Station in two ten field crop rotation: grain tillage and grain - grass tillage rotation of prolonged stationary experience. The soil is the black soil, low in humus, powerful, with humus content (0-30sm), depending on the power of nutrition backgrounds in the arable soil layer. It was found that the selection of predecessors and the differentiated application of mineral fertilizers ensure stable high yields of grain and they exceed the varieties without fertilizers by 40-79%. Winter wheat yield depends on the crop rotation of 8-15%; from its predecessor - 15-18% and 27-31% of the fertilizer. A strong correlation between yield and agronomic methods was determined. The most effective predecessor for the wheat cultivation by the turnover of furrow slice is sainfoin, peas and wheat. More labor intensive and energy-consuming predecessors are grain maize and sugar beet
177 kb

LONG TERM 32-YEAR-OLD APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS FOR THE FERTILITY OF THE ORDINARY BLACK SOIL AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET

abstract 1171603088 issue 117 pp. 1341 – 1356 31.03.2016 ru 540
The article deals with the effectiveness of mineral and organic fertilizers in long-term application (for more than thirty years) according to the influence on the fertility of ordinary black soil of the Western Ciscaucasia and productivity of sugar beet. The investigations were carried out in the long-term stationary experiment laid on the experimental stationary section "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" of P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. The experiment was laid simultaneously in time and space in two ten-course crop rotations and combined grain-grass tilled. In the structure of sown areas sugar beet occupied 10% of crop rotation area and was placed after the winter wheat. During three rotations it was studied: 1- control without fertilizer with natural forming level of mineral nutrition; 2- minimal dose N21P26K16 3- medium dose N43P52K33 ; 4 - N43P52K33, 5- high dose N96P104K68; 6- organo-mineral system¹ N43P52K34 + 12 t/ha of manure; 7- organo-mineral system² N20P24K34 + II-III rotations tillage of straw crop + 6 t/ha of manure; 8- medium dose P52K33; 9- medium dose N43K33; 10- medium dose N43K52. The soil which is used by organo-mineral system with increased and high standards of mineral fertilizers had higher concentration of mineral nitrogen. Long systematic application of fertilizer had more noticeable effect on soil phosphorus regime. The provision of soil by exchange potassium tended to decline from rotation to rotation. If at the completion of the first rotation the content of this battery was at the level 362,0-433,0 mg / kg of soil, in 2010, these values were 356,0-405,0 mg / kg of soil, remaining at the level of increased and high provision characterized to ordinary black-soil. Fertilizers for crop rotation provided almost equal yield increase: in the first rotation - 4,9-16,0 t / ha in the second 5,3- 17,1, the third 6,1-15,5 t / ha. In the moderate favorable for moisture and temperature conditions during the first and third rotation (hydrothermal index 0,8- 0,76), the value of sugar beet yield was 30,1-46,1 and 35,7-52,1 t / ha, in comparison with tougher conditions for the second rotation (hydrothermal index 0,41- 1,96) higher up to 2,6-6,5 9,2-16,0 t / ha. Research carried out in long-term stationary experiment showed that long-term use of fertilizers prevents to the loss of soil organic substances, supporting the humus content at the level of 3.95-3.99%, and organicsystems contribute to its reproduction to 4,01-4,21%. soil nitrogen state is stabilized. However, there is a tendency of decrease of the exchange potassium in mineral fertilizer systems. In the conditions of insufficient moisture supply of the northern zone of Krasnodar region the most applicable norm is N60P90R60, both in mineral and organic-systems, ensuring the collection of root crops within 43,0-45,2 t / ha, with an estimated amount of sugar 6,92-7, 14 t / ha. The given systems of fertilizer provide the yield of root crops 53,3-56,0 t / ha with the synthesis of sugar 8,19-8,70 t / ha. Increasing the rate of fertilizer in 2 times from medium to N120P160R120 doesn’t increase the productivity, reduce sugar content of root crop to 0.4-0.8%. It is undesirable to use fertilizer that are unbalanced in nutrition elements in which root crops yield declines from 5.4 to 19.0%, and current biological sugar from 6,1 to 25,9%
328 kb

YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF DIFFERENT WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS DEPENDING ON PREDECESSORS, FERTILIZERS AND OTHER METHODS OF GROWING

abstract 1201606087 issue 120 pp. 1305 – 1321 30.06.2016 ru 443
The reaction of winter wheat of Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute selection that is included in the State Register of selection achievements in the Russian Federation, on the predecessor, the sowing time and the level of mineral nutrition in 2008 - 2010 was studied in "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute, located in the northern area of the region. The objects of research were cultivars ‘Bezostaya 1’, taken as a standard, ‘Tanya’, ‘Grom’, ‘Sila’, ‘Ligue 1’, ‘Irishka’ and ‘Yumpa’, with a specific weight of strong wheat (excluding the cultivar ‘Bezostaya 1’) - 57.1%, essential - 28.6%, weak - 14 3%. The predecessors are winter wheat, sunflower, white mustard. Seed dates: the 20th of September (optimal for determining the originator of the cultivar) the 1st and 10th of October. The background of mineral nutrition is N0P0K0, N60P30K30 and N120-160P90K60. The soil is an ordinary powerful heavy-loam chernozem with humus content in the soil layer 0 - 30 cm 3.95 - 4.00%, of mineral nitrogen - 8.3 - 10.7 mg / kg of soil, of mobile phosphates - 22.4 - 26 6 mg / kg of soil, of exchangeable potassium - 330 - 360 mg / kg of soil. Weather conditions during the research were extremely contrasting, both by the precipitation and by the temperature conditions. Based on these studies, it was found that five or six cultivars of this crop that differ in biological and economic features, the reaction on the predecessor, soil fertility and sowing terms as well as adapted to the specific soil and climatic conditions should be used to obtain consistently high yields of winter wheat. Well-chosen cultivars, predecessors and sowing terms predecessors allow without additional cost on the unfertilized background to increase the yield on 0.20 - 0.79 t / ha. Together with the growth of yield, the technological quality of grain is improved: protein content by 0.5 - 2.4%, fibrin content - 1.7 - 7.6%. The principle of mosaic use of cultivars with specific predominance of strong wheat is 57.1%, essential - 28.6%, weak - 14.3%, it allows to produce the grain when you apply the minimum dose of 12.5% protein content, 20.9% of fibrin content. When using N90P60K60 respectively 13.3 and 23.6% at a dose N120-150P90K60 - 14.4 and 26.8% with an average of 13.5 - 24.0%
389 kb

YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF THE WINTER WHEAT IN THE CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT HUMIDIFYING IN KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1281704067 issue 128 pp. 984 – 1002 28.04.2017 ru 428
The influence of the predecessor and different doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield and the quality of the winter wheat cultivar ‘Krasnodar 99’ were investigated. Investigations were carried out in the North-Kuban Agricultural Experiment Station in two ten- course crop-rotations: grain plowing and grain - grass plowing (stationary experience). The soil is the black soil, low in humus, powerful, with humus content 3,95-4,00%, depending on the nutrition in the arable soil layer (0-30sm), mineral nitrogen is 5,9-8,3 mg / kg of soil, exchangeable potassium is 330-360 mg / kg of soil. It was found that the maximum value of the winter wheat crop structure elements is noticed in the fertilizer systems with complete mineral fertilizer, and the minimum value - with PK and NK. Winter wheat yield depends on the crop rotation of 8-15%; from its predecessor - 15-18% and 27-31% of the fertilizer. The protein content was mainly determined by the fertilizer dose. Enhanced and high doses of fertilizers contributed to an increase in the protein content to 12%.A strong correlation between protein content, agronomic methods and precipitation was determined
191 kb

CROP YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF ANTONINA WINTER WHEAT IN LEACHED BLACK SOIL UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN PRE-CAUCASIAN REGION

abstract 1291705098 issue 129 pp. 1353 – 1370 31.05.2017 ru 376
The article is devoted to the various elements of the cultivation technology of winter wheat called Antonina with the application of different soil fertility backgrounds, fertilizer norms, and plant protection systems against weeds, pests and diseases. Investigations are carried out in a multivariate stationary experiment: factor ‘A’- soil fertility; factor ‘B’ - fertilizer system; factor ‘C’ - the system of plants protection; factor ‘D’ - the main methods of soil tillage. Four models of soil fertility levels were studied in the experiment: А0 - initial (natural background); А1 - medium (200 kg / ha Р2О5 and 200 t / ha of solid manure); А2 - high (double dose); at А3 - high (tripled) on three backgrounds of basic soil tillage: nonmoldboard, recommended, moldboard with deep bursting and without the application of tillage (direct seeding and the natural rate of soil fertility). The soil is heavy leached black humus with humus content in the arable layer of 2.5% - 2.9%. Based on examined researches it was found that for the sustainable yield of winter wheat the dose of mineral fertilizers should be increased, by that, the high quality of the grain is provided
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