Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Kolotov Anton Sergeevich

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Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev

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Articles count: 9

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abstract 1281704008 issue 128 pp. 146 – 153 28.04.2017 ru 460
Potato has been and remains one of the five world's most important crops. For nearly two hundred years potato in Russia is the "second bread". This is one of the so-called social products. Over the past 20 - 25 years of potato farming in our country, there have been significant changes, both positive and negative. Today, potatoes are grown in different soil and climatic conditions in more than one hundred countries around the world, including the desert oasis and beyond the polar circle. Potato cultivation Center recently has moved to Asia. In our time, the leaders of potato production are China, Russia, India, the US and Ukraine. Over the past few decades the number of produced potatoes has increased by 41% and the area under potato planting only 9.5%. From the above data it is clear that the world potato economy in recent years has got significant changes, indicating that the timeliness and relevance of the material in this article is true
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abstract 1201606008 issue 120 pp. 147 – 172 30.06.2016 ru 536
Material and technical resources form the bulk of the cost in the production of agricultural products and determine the level of intensity of agricultural development, productivity and competitiveness of the industry. The most important role in agricultural production has been given to transport operation, as the performance and the quality of the implementation of which depends directly on the amount and the grade of the products. On intraeconomic transportation in the APC RF, along with the car we widely use tractor trucks. Unfortunately, in most cases for the transportation of agricultural goods we use supersize trucks, including construction purposes, with a high axle loading. These vehicles need roads with improved coating to each field. Here we may note substantial shortcomings of transportation. Because of the unnecessary displacements from combines to dump trucks to the end of the field, the costs and the losses are increasing and the arrival of heavy machinery in the field leads to soil compaction, which ultimately affects the future harvest. The successful implementation of agricultural work is strongly associated with the timely and volume movement of a variety of materials, such as animal feed, fertilizers, construction, and other loads. A lot of these works needs roads; nevertheless, the quality of agricultural roads and field work significantly affects the timely and high-quality forage. Thus an important part of any machinery tractor fleet of agricultural production is taken by the presence of modern cars, tractor-trailers and semi-trailers. Continuous growth in the saturation of tractors carried out around the world, improves the performance of tractor transport aggregate by increasing their capacity and speed, either on the road or in the field. However, if you increase the saturation of tractors, it encounters problems related to the deterioration of the controllability of the tractor and transport unit. To address emerging when increasing the saturation of tractors problems, we have proposed devices, allowing reducing negative impact on the production of elevated oscillatory processes, to increase the permeability and straightness of movement of tractor-transport unit
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abstract 0961402024 issue 96 pp. 324 – 334 28.02.2014 ru 1323
This article discusses the results of the studies of the faculty and the staff of Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev confirmed with RF patents
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abstract 1261702013 issue 126 pp. 180 – 198 28.02.2017 ru 495
The role of transport in agricultural production is significant. It is the connecting link in the technological chain of the agro-industrial complex (of the APC). On-farm transport in the APC together with cars and tractor transport are widely used. The rationality of the use of wheeled tractors for farm transport substantiates the possibility of their movement on asphalt and on dirt roads. The specific gravity of the tractor transport in the domestic agriculture is 22-27% of the total volume of transport and 50-60% of the volume of farm traffic. A high level of use of tractor transport has been observed in the countries of Western Europe and the USA. In the farms of leading countries of Western Europe (Germany, Italy, France, etc.) about 70- 90% on-farm transport of agricultural goods is done by tractor transport. Tractor transport in a live environment is running on roads with varying terrain, a wavy profile cover, on soils with different hardness and humidity. When driving vehicles at high speeds, the trailer is wobbling from side to side, constantly accompanying tractor transport during its operation. As a result, it is bad for propulsion, transmission, and it deteriorates the dynamic performance properties of equipment, working conditions of the operator. To reduce the amplitude of oscillations of the trailer, the operator is forced to work strenuously with the steering wheel or to slow down the speed, which in turn affects operator fatigue, as well as the performance and maneuverability of the vehicle. Thus, advanced technologies in electronics, sensor technology and software will determine the nature of agro-technical innovations and will lead to increased automation of business processes in crop production with the aim to organize the work more effectively, efficiently, accurately, environmentally friendly and economically feasible. When working with intelligent technologies, understanding the development of high-tech, precision engineering requires a revision to the personnel policy and education in agriculture, which should be based on the relevant organization of farms and their proper new type engineering solutions
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abstract 1071503030 issue 107 pp. 433 – 442 31.03.2015 ru 816
Potatoes in our country are one of the most cultivated cultures in agriculture. The most time-consuming process in the production of potatoes is harvesting. Currently for potato harvesting potato harvesters or diggers are used. Existing machines are not sufficiently well-behaved in adverse operating conditions such as the high and low humidity. Quality of work of the units and devices of potato harvesters depends on the digging working parts. In the process of potato harvesting up to 1000 tons of heaps from 1 hectare go through the units of the machine, which includes plant residues and dense soil out of row spacing. To eliminate or reduce the impact of this lack, on either side of the coulter we set cutting discs which prevent ingress of heaps out of row spacing. However, due to the imperfections of the design they are slipping during operation what causes accumulation and enhancing traction resistance. Based on these facts, the work on improving the digging working parts in the actual and future challenges for the country's agriculture
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abstract 1141510075 issue 114 pp. 988 – 1003 30.12.2015 ru 941
Potato is cultivated in 130 countries on an area of over 18 million hectares; it annually gives more than 300 million tons of tubers. The share of the Russian Federation accounts is about 11% ... 14% of total production. The resulting potatoes consumed in food, animal feed, technical purposes, seed fund. According to the Ministry of agriculture of Russia, the largest number of potatoes in our country (89 %) is produced in peasant farms and personal farms of citizens, the area of cultivation of which make up about 2.7 million hectares. At such farms for the harvest, they use mainly potatodiggers, followed by selection of crops manually. The use of diggers in small areas of planting is more costefficiently in relation to the harvesting combine. In addition, the parameters requested for ATT to damage potatoes when harvesting with the diggers (3%) are higher than during harvesting by combine harvester (5%). As practice shows, for the use of cleaning units, even under optimal harvesting conditions in the hopper of the combine, there are soil and vegetable impurities. There are many different devices intended to localize the problem. Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that it is necessary to pay considerable attention to the quality of work of excavating working bodies, because it affects the productivity of the functioning of the whole machine. Currently, there are widespread potato aggregates with the receiving part, equipped with side disks, spaced along the edges of the plowshares. The disks cut off the raised layer of soil from between the rows. This entails improving the performance of the potato harvester. The most efficient and economical from the point of view of energy consumption, is the work of passive disks with hooks. The quality of potato harvesters depends on the design and performance of excavating bodies. The proposed design solution for an excavating body increases the productivity of harvesting machines
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abstract 1241610019 issue 124 pp. 366 – 389 30.12.2016 ru 524
In the world, recycling processes have recently become more common in order to save material and energy resources. Currently, in connection with the level of motorization, there grew a problem of recycling waste tires and their elements which is of great importance for many regions of the country. Decommissioning worn tires is a source of environmental pollution, bearing the prolonged character; they are not a subject to biological destruction and require constant increase of storage facilities. There is a continuous accumulation of used tires and we can recycle only about 20% of their amount. Worn tires represent very large-capacity products of polymer-containing waste, virtually resistant to natural degradation. Therefore, the problem of processing and secondary use, emerged from the operation of tires is of great economic and environmental significance. However, the worn tires are a source of valuable secondary raw materials: rubber, soot (essentially pure carbon), metal and synthetic cord. 90% of all waste of rubber are tires and represent a vast reserve of raw materials. In the emerging in the industry nonrenew- material resources the efficient use of secondary raw materials is of great importance. There are improved technologies for processing rubber goods, and the equipment used for it
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abstract 1201606025 issue 120 pp. 375 – 398 30.06.2016 ru 520
In recent years, in many countries around the world, much attention is paid to the issues of ensuring of rational use of energy resources, due to a number of objective factors, chief among which are: the lack of own energy resources to meet domestic energy needs; the sharp increase in the cost of production and the production of energy resources; further growth in energy needs; the presence of large potential opportunities to reduce unproductive losses of fuel and energy. In the world, the challenge now is to ensure a gradual but steady transfer of the economy on energy saving way of development. To achieve the goal of reducing energy costs we might use two ways: firstly, the widespread introduction of energy saving technologies, and secondly, the reduction of material production, improving its quality and service. In agriculture, the improvement of the technological process can be carried out using new tillage methods, improving the organization of production and tools. Further development of mechanization in agriculture will contribute to further growth of electrification in the agricultural sector, which will significantly reduce the use of the most expensive and limited energy resources. The article offers a technique of the estimation of the efficiency of consumption of energy in agricultural production. In order to compare the efficiency of machines in the cultivation and harvesting of potatoes, there was conducted an energy assessment of the operations of modern technology. As variables, there were investigated different operation modes of the machine: working speed and working width, depth of stroke of the working bodies. In the process of evaluating energy operations, modern technology to prepare the soil for planting potatoes was determined humidity, mechanical composition and soil type. As a main factor in the analysis of technological methods, we have taken the overall specific energy consumption and specific energy consumption for the digging below tuber formation. Analysis of theoretical researches of agricultural machinery has led to the conclusion that the energy cost of implementing the technological process in the machines of different designs varies
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abstract 1211607029 issue 121 pp. 592 – 608 30.09.2016 ru 529
Fruit harvesting is the final and decisive operation in the general work plan for growing fruit, which largely determines the qualitative and quantitative indicators of production and economy of industry in general. Increasing productivity by improving the safety of fruits and vegetables is a priority and not an easy task. For example, the use of cleaning technologies with the use of machinery for harvesting of apples by shaking can significantly reduce the time of gathering fruit compared to hand harvesting. This technology may be applicable, if the fruit is grown for the manufacture of juices, jams, etc. Currently, in several European countries and in the USA, they widely use fruit harvesting platforms and machines. The leader in the production of fruit harvesting platforms is Italy. To reduce the damage to fruit in agriculture, the analysis of the traumatic factors is of great importance, with the analysis of available machines and their subsequent modernization with the aim of improving the reliability and quality of harvesting and transport process, taking into account of the algorithm for solving these problems, the creation of new varieties of fruits and vegetables suitable for machine processing, strict compliance with deadlines and agronomic requirements for the performed technological operations, taking into account the savings of energy and resources when using mobile technology. In addition to the modernization of the machines for efficient operation, it is necessary to improve also the scheme of planting of gardens and methods of cultivation, transfer horticulture to intensive way of development