Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Kostenko Natalia Alekseevna

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Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev

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Articles count: 11

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abstract 1021408054 issue 102 pp. 856 – 868 31.10.2014 ru 1008
We have presented the technological scheme of a dispersal device which allows to increase the efficiency of cleaning and disinfection of automotive vans with specialized solutions
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abstract 1071503029 issue 107 pp. 419 – 432 31.03.2015 ru 1300
The effectiveness of disinfection depends on used disinfecting materials for vans, their actions and technological parameters of the installation for applying disinfectants. Hot mist generators provide uniform distribution of particles of disinfectant solution inside the van for transportation of agricultural products. The parameters of the generator of hot mist affecting the quality of disinfection were investigated. Tests were conducted for the vans used to transport agricultural products. For studies we used the vans in operation, which transport farm animals (pigs) and had been disinfected before. Sampling for the research on contamination was performed with pre-prepared swabs. Factorial experiment was planned with using scheme #32, and as a result of significant factors in the univariate experiments we set a temperature of the aerosol disinfectant solution and the duration of surface treatment. As an optimization function we have chosen disinfection efficiency of bodies of vehicles carrying agricultural products. Comparing the results of the experiments on different groups of microorganisms we have found that the optimal mode of hot mist generator with a dispersing device are: the processing time of 1 m2 - 8.5 at the processing temperature - 65º C
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abstract 1582004016 issue 158 pp. 215 – 228 30.04.2020 ru 243
High-strength steels are used to increase the reliability of potato harvesters. With the advent of new materials and new technologies in agricultural engineering, it is possible to significantly reduce the mass of working bodies, to reduce energy costs. The elastic system of the composite elevator bar, unbalanced by the impact of the component of the potato heap, is in oscillatory motion. An increase in the height of the fall, and hence the speed of collision with the bar of the component of the potato heap, determines the amount of deflection of the composite bar. During vibrations, in addition to static deformations, dynamic ones are added, depending on the magnitude of the impact force. It was established that a bar made of composite material should have the following parameters: elastic modulus E = 55000 MPa; the diameter of the composite bar d = 0,012 m
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abstract 1141510075 issue 114 pp. 988 – 1003 30.12.2015 ru 941
Potato is cultivated in 130 countries on an area of over 18 million hectares; it annually gives more than 300 million tons of tubers. The share of the Russian Federation accounts is about 11% ... 14% of total production. The resulting potatoes consumed in food, animal feed, technical purposes, seed fund. According to the Ministry of agriculture of Russia, the largest number of potatoes in our country (89 %) is produced in peasant farms and personal farms of citizens, the area of cultivation of which make up about 2.7 million hectares. At such farms for the harvest, they use mainly potatodiggers, followed by selection of crops manually. The use of diggers in small areas of planting is more costefficiently in relation to the harvesting combine. In addition, the parameters requested for ATT to damage potatoes when harvesting with the diggers (3%) are higher than during harvesting by combine harvester (5%). As practice shows, for the use of cleaning units, even under optimal harvesting conditions in the hopper of the combine, there are soil and vegetable impurities. There are many different devices intended to localize the problem. Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that it is necessary to pay considerable attention to the quality of work of excavating working bodies, because it affects the productivity of the functioning of the whole machine. Currently, there are widespread potato aggregates with the receiving part, equipped with side disks, spaced along the edges of the plowshares. The disks cut off the raised layer of soil from between the rows. This entails improving the performance of the potato harvester. The most efficient and economical from the point of view of energy consumption, is the work of passive disks with hooks. The quality of potato harvesters depends on the design and performance of excavating bodies. The proposed design solution for an excavating body increases the productivity of harvesting machines
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abstract 1241610018 issue 124 pp. 346 – 365 30.12.2016 ru 618
One of the promising directions of development of agriculture of the Russian Federation is to increase the production, improve the quality and decrease the cost of potato cultivation. Annual cleaning is one of the most intense and costly in transport and technological processes. Potatoes - blending high culture and very picky about cleaning. The highest yields and income from potato production get where embedded technology to optimize energy and labor costs. The main (though not only) the special technical means used during machine harvesting potatoes, are potato harvesters. The main problem when cleaning is a problem of balancing conflicting requirements to the process and possibilities of agricultural machinery. Including increasing the purity of the tubers in the container with one hand, minimization of losses and damages of tubers on the other hand, when the performance of equipment. In this article we propose a circuit-design solution separating the working body of the potato harvester that allow for cleaning to significantly reduce the amount of traumatized potatoes in the process of separating soil and vegetable impurities, creating the preconditions for the elimination of damage to the tubers on the hard side of the working bodies of harvesting machines. Informed choice and timely use of plug-in modules (separating working bodies) in modern potato harvesting machines at work in specific climatic conditions allows them to fully match the list of regulated agronomic requirements. Thus, the creation of new science-based technical solutions for a separation of the organs of potato harvesters is an actual scientific-technical task, which makes a significant contribution to the development of the country
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abstract 1231609057 issue 123 pp. 841 – 855 30.11.2016 ru 337
In the study of the processes of growing, harvesting, post-harvesting processing and delivery of fruit and vegetables it seems to be rational to have generalized control of the "product – environment – packaging – transport - storage" in general, as well as providing the possibility of creating optimal conditions for fruit and vegetable products depending on its condition. The basis of ensuring product integrity at all stages of production is a system approach with application of modern information technologies. Optimization of logistic processes in the agro-industrial complex (AIC), in addition to cost, market influences many important indicators of the final product of this complex: quality, timing and reliability of supply, the size of the delivered batches, etc. The quality of fruits and vegetables begins to change dramatically immediately after harvesting. Being in a stressful and unfavorable conditions, fruit, vegetables, root crops intensively lose moisture and consume nutrients, secrete aromatic substances, carry out the breathing process. These losses are caused by biological factors fit fruit and vegetable products to the changed conditions. Thus, the main indicators of the quality of products to control rationally in the process of harvesting and subsequent production phases take into account the data obtained to optimize process parameters to reduce losses and damage products. The article discusses the prospects of applying the system-information approach to the formation of quality of fruits and vegetables during transportation and storage. The proposed embodiment of a generalized control of the "product – environment – packaging – transport - storage", aimed at ensuring the possibility of creating optimal conditions for easy-to-sell agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, root crops) depending on its condition. We have established that rational technology of production and sales of products must have the ability to control and operational adjustments depending on the level of quality input products from the stage of harvest
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abstract 1201606025 issue 120 pp. 375 – 398 30.06.2016 ru 519
In recent years, in many countries around the world, much attention is paid to the issues of ensuring of rational use of energy resources, due to a number of objective factors, chief among which are: the lack of own energy resources to meet domestic energy needs; the sharp increase in the cost of production and the production of energy resources; further growth in energy needs; the presence of large potential opportunities to reduce unproductive losses of fuel and energy. In the world, the challenge now is to ensure a gradual but steady transfer of the economy on energy saving way of development. To achieve the goal of reducing energy costs we might use two ways: firstly, the widespread introduction of energy saving technologies, and secondly, the reduction of material production, improving its quality and service. In agriculture, the improvement of the technological process can be carried out using new tillage methods, improving the organization of production and tools. Further development of mechanization in agriculture will contribute to further growth of electrification in the agricultural sector, which will significantly reduce the use of the most expensive and limited energy resources. The article offers a technique of the estimation of the efficiency of consumption of energy in agricultural production. In order to compare the efficiency of machines in the cultivation and harvesting of potatoes, there was conducted an energy assessment of the operations of modern technology. As variables, there were investigated different operation modes of the machine: working speed and working width, depth of stroke of the working bodies. In the process of evaluating energy operations, modern technology to prepare the soil for planting potatoes was determined humidity, mechanical composition and soil type. As a main factor in the analysis of technological methods, we have taken the overall specific energy consumption and specific energy consumption for the digging below tuber formation. Analysis of theoretical researches of agricultural machinery has led to the conclusion that the energy cost of implementing the technological process in the machines of different designs varies
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abstract 1211607029 issue 121 pp. 592 – 608 30.09.2016 ru 529
Fruit harvesting is the final and decisive operation in the general work plan for growing fruit, which largely determines the qualitative and quantitative indicators of production and economy of industry in general. Increasing productivity by improving the safety of fruits and vegetables is a priority and not an easy task. For example, the use of cleaning technologies with the use of machinery for harvesting of apples by shaking can significantly reduce the time of gathering fruit compared to hand harvesting. This technology may be applicable, if the fruit is grown for the manufacture of juices, jams, etc. Currently, in several European countries and in the USA, they widely use fruit harvesting platforms and machines. The leader in the production of fruit harvesting platforms is Italy. To reduce the damage to fruit in agriculture, the analysis of the traumatic factors is of great importance, with the analysis of available machines and their subsequent modernization with the aim of improving the reliability and quality of harvesting and transport process, taking into account of the algorithm for solving these problems, the creation of new varieties of fruits and vegetables suitable for machine processing, strict compliance with deadlines and agronomic requirements for the performed technological operations, taking into account the savings of energy and resources when using mobile technology. In addition to the modernization of the machines for efficient operation, it is necessary to improve also the scheme of planting of gardens and methods of cultivation, transfer horticulture to intensive way of development
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abstract 1201606077 issue 120 pp. 1166 – 1187 30.06.2016 ru 526
While mechanical harvesting of potatoes, about 20-40% of the tubers get damages. Dynamic loads, injuries of the tubers, causing internal damage – which is browning of the flesh of the tuber, which occurs in the process of its storage. At the same time, ways to express control of damage to potato tubers will allow both reducing damage during harvest, and promptly sending damaged potatoes for recycling before the results of mechanical stress for the tubers during harvesting. The definition of internal damage to the potatoes is possible because of the analysis of the different elasticity of the tissues of damaged and undamaged tubers. The value of overpressure of the device is chosen such way that during deformation of tubers there mainly has been compression of the damaged tissues of the tuber, with the least turgor. The degree of damage of samples of tubers is determined by the ratio of the volume of damaged tissues of tubers to the total volume of the sample. We have given the mechanical properties of tissues of tubers, fruits and root vegetables, their structure, dimensional characteristics, it can be assumed that the use of this method of determining internal damage possible for apples, carrots, beets and harvest of other crops. Use of damage control will enable timely identification of hidden damage and make it possible to eliminate their causes, which lead to increase loss products
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abstract 1121508079 issue 112 pp. 1099 – 1109 30.10.2015 ru 903
One can see some density irregularity within the roll in the baler with a chamber of constant volume. We have found out that the maximum density of hay roll width (the baler width) is observed in the middle part. This is due to the shape of the hay roll entering the baler. To even the hay rolls they have mounted some rotating disks having some inclined spring pins above the baler. To improve the roller distribution the disks above the baler have been pushed forward forming a tapering gap. The evening discs rotating above the moving roll will cause some relative motion of hay particles. The interaction of the evening disks with the hay roll in the vertical plane will be determined by the elasticity of the hay roll and the weight of the frame with the disks. We have studied the trajectories of hay particles motion with the help of MathCad program. We have had the following initial parameters: the degree of compaction (decrease of the roll height when evening), the friction coefficient, the angle rate of the evening disks, the number of pins and the speed of the hay roll. As a result we have got the trajectories of the hay particles motion when the evening disks functioning. The analysis of the trajectories has allowed to establish some basic parameters of the evening device such as the distance of 0.15…0.2 m between the pins; the degree of compression while evening 20...25 %, the angle rate of the evening discs 23...30 rad / s and the diameter of the evening disc 0.74 m. The application of the evening device in the form of the disks with pins provides a uniform distribution of hay particles edgewise of the baler ensuring preliminary hay roll seal press before passing to the baler pressure chamber that contributes to getting the rolls with larger mass and a uniform distribution of hay density inside the roll