Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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Name

Kolupaev Sergey Vasilyevich

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Academic rank

Honorary rank

Organization, job position

Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev
   

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Articles count: 12

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124 kb

A MODERN APPROACH TO POTATO PRODUCTION

abstract 1281704008 issue 128 pp. 146 – 153 28.04.2017 ru 460
Potato has been and remains one of the five world's most important crops. For nearly two hundred years potato in Russia is the "second bread". This is one of the so-called social products. Over the past 20 - 25 years of potato farming in our country, there have been significant changes, both positive and negative. Today, potatoes are grown in different soil and climatic conditions in more than one hundred countries around the world, including the desert oasis and beyond the polar circle. Potato cultivation Center recently has moved to Asia. In our time, the leaders of potato production are China, Russia, India, the US and Ukraine. Over the past few decades the number of produced potatoes has increased by 41% and the area under potato planting only 9.5%. From the above data it is clear that the world potato economy in recent years has got significant changes, indicating that the timeliness and relevance of the material in this article is true
1490 kb

ANALYSIS OF METHODS AND MEANS OF DIAGNOSTICS OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF VEHICLES

abstract 1161602071 issue 116 pp. 1046 – 1067 29.02.2016 ru 973
The article presents native and foreign bench-top and board methods to test the automobile break systems. One can find information about some native trailer-break stands. We have analyzed their advantages and drawbacks such as low information capacity, high diagnostics processing time, low quality of regulation and maintenance operations due to big influence of the operator’s experience, his knowledge and individual characteristics, and great instability of manual test modes on the results of the investigations. To remove these shortcomings they have had some experiments at MADI in order to develop the module to the brake qualities stand. When using it one can have automatic diagnoses and flow chart is presented in the article. Due to the existing vehicles’ state inspection mode and diagnostic means in our country there appeared new stands for brakes control. One can attribute to these devices a range of brake qualities stands developed and produced at Novgorod plant GARO. These are STS-3, STS-10 and STO series stands for cars, trucks, buses and micro-buses. The article also presents some foreign stands used in Russia such as universal brake stands STM by META firm, the break stand IW7 Eurosystem by MAHARUSSIA firm. We have presented in the article the results of the analysis of simple and complicated board means of diagnosis as “Eftor-2”, “Effect”
787 kb

ANALYSIS OF PROCESS OF UNLOADING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION FROM THE ADVANCED BODY OF THE TRACTOR TRAILER

abstract 1121508058 issue 112 pp. 774 – 797 30.10.2015 ru 1135
The development of agricultural production inevitably entails an increasing volume of traffic and a turnover of goods. Therefore, the issues of increasing transport efficiency, reducing the price of transportations and improving productivity acquire great importance. In most cases, supersize dump trucks used for the transport of agricultural production have much more than 6 tons axle load. Thus, these cars need to have roads with improved surface to each field, which undoubtedly is a significant drawback. Because of the extra movements of harvester dump trucks on the turning strip at the end of the field, it increases expenses of damage and loss of crops and the arrival of heavy machinery in the field leading to soil compaction, that in the end affects the future crop. Transportation of agricultural commodities is most effective when the car arrives directly to the harvester machinery. Such vehicles must have sufficient abilities and capacity of the body comparable with the volume of a combine hopper and has no significant impact on soil sealing. With this method, harvesters do not make extra movements and are not idle. Basic requirements for vehicles used in the harvesting potatoes, are in a more productive use due to increasing the capacity and reducing downtime when loading or unloading and minimizing the level of damage to other tubers. For the transportation of agricultural products there is a different transport technology, which either do not fully meets the requirements of transportation of highly fragile product, or has a significant cost. Therefore, we require a specially equipped vehicle bodies, with a competitive ability in the range acceptable to the Russian Federation. As one of the innovative developments, this article proposes a tipper body of the vehicle for transportation of highly fragile agricultural products. The proposed design solution for the tipper ensures a uniform unloading of transported products from the vehicle body and prevents arching issues
1056 kb

CONTEMPORARY APPLIANCES FOR AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX AND PROSPECTS OF ITS OF MODERNIZATION

abstract 1201606008 issue 120 pp. 147 – 172 30.06.2016 ru 536
Material and technical resources form the bulk of the cost in the production of agricultural products and determine the level of intensity of agricultural development, productivity and competitiveness of the industry. The most important role in agricultural production has been given to transport operation, as the performance and the quality of the implementation of which depends directly on the amount and the grade of the products. On intraeconomic transportation in the APC RF, along with the car we widely use tractor trucks. Unfortunately, in most cases for the transportation of agricultural goods we use supersize trucks, including construction purposes, with a high axle loading. These vehicles need roads with improved coating to each field. Here we may note substantial shortcomings of transportation. Because of the unnecessary displacements from combines to dump trucks to the end of the field, the costs and the losses are increasing and the arrival of heavy machinery in the field leads to soil compaction, which ultimately affects the future harvest. The successful implementation of agricultural work is strongly associated with the timely and volume movement of a variety of materials, such as animal feed, fertilizers, construction, and other loads. A lot of these works needs roads; nevertheless, the quality of agricultural roads and field work significantly affects the timely and high-quality forage. Thus an important part of any machinery tractor fleet of agricultural production is taken by the presence of modern cars, tractor-trailers and semi-trailers. Continuous growth in the saturation of tractors carried out around the world, improves the performance of tractor transport aggregate by increasing their capacity and speed, either on the road or in the field. However, if you increase the saturation of tractors, it encounters problems related to the deterioration of the controllability of the tractor and transport unit. To address emerging when increasing the saturation of tractors problems, we have proposed devices, allowing reducing negative impact on the production of elevated oscillatory processes, to increase the permeability and straightness of movement of tractor-transport unit
316 kb

DIAGNOSTICS OF A MODERN CAR

abstract 1181604061 issue 118 pp. 1001 – 1025 29.04.2016 ru 676
The article presents a technical diagnostics of a car as a complex of goals and tasks connected with trouble-shooting of mechanisms and systems in order to eliminate them. We have considered the stages of computer diagnostics of different automobile systems such as diagnosing the engine, the brake system, steering and suspension. We have analyzed their components, the ways of troubleshooting and elimination recommendations. The article presents the main troubles transferred from the electronic control unit. The article also presents the stages of diagnosing the engine including external examination, listening to abnormal noises, checking the operating fluids and the engine management system, diagnosing the basic engine systems and checking the cylinders being filled. The article contains the list of main troubles and their reasons. One can also see diagnosing the brake system, its defects and remedies. The article presents diagnostics and repair of the suspender and graphics describing the check of the dismantled shock strut at the stand and tests of the shock strut without being dismantled. We have analyzed computer diagnostics and the problems it solves
461 kb

FEATURES OF THE APPLICATION OF MODERN TRACTOR TRANSPORT IN THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES FOR THE CULTIVATION OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS

abstract 1261702013 issue 126 pp. 180 – 198 28.02.2017 ru 495
The role of transport in agricultural production is significant. It is the connecting link in the technological chain of the agro-industrial complex (of the APC). On-farm transport in the APC together with cars and tractor transport are widely used. The rationality of the use of wheeled tractors for farm transport substantiates the possibility of their movement on asphalt and on dirt roads. The specific gravity of the tractor transport in the domestic agriculture is 22-27% of the total volume of transport and 50-60% of the volume of farm traffic. A high level of use of tractor transport has been observed in the countries of Western Europe and the USA. In the farms of leading countries of Western Europe (Germany, Italy, France, etc.) about 70- 90% on-farm transport of agricultural goods is done by tractor transport. Tractor transport in a live environment is running on roads with varying terrain, a wavy profile cover, on soils with different hardness and humidity. When driving vehicles at high speeds, the trailer is wobbling from side to side, constantly accompanying tractor transport during its operation. As a result, it is bad for propulsion, transmission, and it deteriorates the dynamic performance properties of equipment, working conditions of the operator. To reduce the amplitude of oscillations of the trailer, the operator is forced to work strenuously with the steering wheel or to slow down the speed, which in turn affects operator fatigue, as well as the performance and maneuverability of the vehicle. Thus, advanced technologies in electronics, sensor technology and software will determine the nature of agro-technical innovations and will lead to increased automation of business processes in crop production with the aim to organize the work more effectively, efficiently, accurately, environmentally friendly and economically feasible. When working with intelligent technologies, understanding the development of high-tech, precision engineering requires a revision to the personnel policy and education in agriculture, which should be based on the relevant organization of farms and their proper new type engineering solutions
450 kb

IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY AND DURABILITY OF THE DEVICE FOR REMOVING THE TOPS WITH CAREFUL TREATMENT OF POTATO TUBERS IN HARVESTING MACHINES

abstract 1191605061 issue 119 pp. 834 – 864 31.05.2016 ru 472
Due to the deterioration of the ecological situation in the world, population tends to eat organically grown foods that are grown either without or with minimal use of chemicals. The development of agriculture in this direction leads ultimately to organic agriculture. To improve the competitiveness of this direction, we need more effective agricultural machines, especially in the last phase of cultivation, namely at the stage of harvesting. One of the most difficult scientific and technical problems with the mechanical harvesting of potatoes is not letting vegetable impurities and tops to fall down in the hopper with the potato tubers, which among other things will improve operational efficiency technology. The article reviewed the various methods for removing the tops, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The article makes a conclusion about the need for potato top separators in harvesting machines. We have also considered a promising device for removing haulm, a conveyor with flexible fingers on the bars and the clamping beater. Тhe most short-lived structural element of the device for removing haulm, reducing reliability of the device, is flexible fingers mounted on rods. We have proposed to use polyurethane as a material for manufacturing flexible fingers
3944 kb

NEW TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS FOR A SEPARATION OF THE ORGANS OF POTATO MACHINERY

abstract 1241610018 issue 124 pp. 346 – 365 30.12.2016 ru 619
One of the promising directions of development of agriculture of the Russian Federation is to increase the production, improve the quality and decrease the cost of potato cultivation. Annual cleaning is one of the most intense and costly in transport and technological processes. Potatoes - blending high culture and very picky about cleaning. The highest yields and income from potato production get where embedded technology to optimize energy and labor costs. The main (though not only) the special technical means used during machine harvesting potatoes, are potato harvesters. The main problem when cleaning is a problem of balancing conflicting requirements to the process and possibilities of agricultural machinery. Including increasing the purity of the tubers in the container with one hand, minimization of losses and damages of tubers on the other hand, when the performance of equipment. In this article we propose a circuit-design solution separating the working body of the potato harvester that allow for cleaning to significantly reduce the amount of traumatized potatoes in the process of separating soil and vegetable impurities, creating the preconditions for the elimination of damage to the tubers on the hard side of the working bodies of harvesting machines. Informed choice and timely use of plug-in modules (separating working bodies) in modern potato harvesting machines at work in specific climatic conditions allows them to fully match the list of regulated agronomic requirements. Thus, the creation of new science-based technical solutions for a separation of the organs of potato harvesters is an actual scientific-technical task, which makes a significant contribution to the development of the country
310 kb

RECYCLING OF TIRES AND THEIR ELEMENTS

abstract 1241610019 issue 124 pp. 366 – 389 30.12.2016 ru 524
In the world, recycling processes have recently become more common in order to save material and energy resources. Currently, in connection with the level of motorization, there grew a problem of recycling waste tires and their elements which is of great importance for many regions of the country. Decommissioning worn tires is a source of environmental pollution, bearing the prolonged character; they are not a subject to biological destruction and require constant increase of storage facilities. There is a continuous accumulation of used tires and we can recycle only about 20% of their amount. Worn tires represent very large-capacity products of polymer-containing waste, virtually resistant to natural degradation. Therefore, the problem of processing and secondary use, emerged from the operation of tires is of great economic and environmental significance. However, the worn tires are a source of valuable secondary raw materials: rubber, soot (essentially pure carbon), metal and synthetic cord. 90% of all waste of rubber are tires and represent a vast reserve of raw materials. In the emerging in the industry nonrenew- material resources the efficient use of secondary raw materials is of great importance. There are improved technologies for processing rubber goods, and the equipment used for it
239 kb

REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION (POTATO EXAMPLE)

abstract 1201606025 issue 120 pp. 375 – 398 30.06.2016 ru 520
In recent years, in many countries around the world, much attention is paid to the issues of ensuring of rational use of energy resources, due to a number of objective factors, chief among which are: the lack of own energy resources to meet domestic energy needs; the sharp increase in the cost of production and the production of energy resources; further growth in energy needs; the presence of large potential opportunities to reduce unproductive losses of fuel and energy. In the world, the challenge now is to ensure a gradual but steady transfer of the economy on energy saving way of development. To achieve the goal of reducing energy costs we might use two ways: firstly, the widespread introduction of energy saving technologies, and secondly, the reduction of material production, improving its quality and service. In agriculture, the improvement of the technological process can be carried out using new tillage methods, improving the organization of production and tools. Further development of mechanization in agriculture will contribute to further growth of electrification in the agricultural sector, which will significantly reduce the use of the most expensive and limited energy resources. The article offers a technique of the estimation of the efficiency of consumption of energy in agricultural production. In order to compare the efficiency of machines in the cultivation and harvesting of potatoes, there was conducted an energy assessment of the operations of modern technology. As variables, there were investigated different operation modes of the machine: working speed and working width, depth of stroke of the working bodies. In the process of evaluating energy operations, modern technology to prepare the soil for planting potatoes was determined humidity, mechanical composition and soil type. As a main factor in the analysis of technological methods, we have taken the overall specific energy consumption and specific energy consumption for the digging below tuber formation. Analysis of theoretical researches of agricultural machinery has led to the conclusion that the energy cost of implementing the technological process in the machines of different designs varies
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