Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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296 kb

OPTIMIZATION OF PARAMETERS AND WORKING HOURS OF MILLING WORKING BODY OF THE UNIT FOR PROCESSING OF ROW-SPACINGS AND SPACE AROUND FRUIT PLANTINGS

abstract 1531909018 issue 153 pp. 168 – 178 29.11.2019 ru 18
For further increase in production of fruit products, there are long-term plans of development of agriculture of the Russian Federation provide laying of new gardens of intensive and superintensive types. In this regard, development of slope lands and their use under gardens is a current social and economic problem. In the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic there are over 10 thousand hectares of intensive and superintensive gardens now. Therefore, large corporations, as well as medium and small business are engaged in production of fruit. One of problems which producers of fruits face it is the shortage of the equipment on care of row-spacings and spaces around fruit plantings. The mechanized technologies of flat gardening are a little effective in the conditions of slopes where the main limiting factor is the soil fertility. At the same time, the issue of increase in fertility of the soil in space around fruit plantings, improvement of the water and food modes of fruit plantings on slope lands is particularly acute. Thus, improvement of technology and development of a new design of the unit, providing performance of several interconnected technological operations for processing of row-spacings and space around fruit plantings, preservation and increase in fertility of soils on slope lands is relevant in the conditions of mountain and foothill gardening Central the North Caucasus. As a result of the carried-out analysis of technological processing of row-spacings and space around fruit plantings and results of theoretical researches (as criterion of optimization) the quality of dyeing of the soil is accepted. Speed of movement of the unit, angular speed of rotation of a mill and the angle of installation of knives have the greatest impact on criterion of optimization. As a result of carrying out a multiple-factor experiment, we have established the optimum values of the specified factors providing the maximum quality of dyeing of the soil
3100 kb

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF PREPARATION OF SOIL BY TERRACING THE SLOPES

abstract 1521908001 issue 152 pp. 1 – 11 31.10.2019 ru 15
Slope land (ravines, gullies, mountain areas) for many countries of the world are important areas of economic activity, and for some they are the only living space. In the mountainous areas there are cereals and feed, fruit, citrus, nut, berry and essential oil crops, grapes, tea and many others. On slope lands, soil preparation by terracing is widely used. The article considers modern technologies and machines for the construction of terraces in order to create protective and fruit plantations on them and to involve new areas in agricultural turnover. There are two main ways to create terraces: hinged and rifled. Most often, when terracing on tractor-passable slopes, various plows and graders (floor terraces) are used, and on tractor-passable slopes there are universal bulldozers and terrasers (rifled terraces). The shuttle plow PCHS-4-35 and revolving plows are especially convenient for the device of floor terraces, with the help of which it is possible to significantly increase labor productivity by reducing the time for idle runs. For rifled terraces, we use a large complex of machines, the most productive of which are: terraser-Ripper TR-2A; terraced equipment TK-4; terraser T-4M, etc. The use of the proposed complex of machines in the construction of raised and rifled terraces will help to increase productivity and involve new lands in agricultural turnover, which will ultimately increase food security of the Russian Federation
430 kb

RECONSTRUCTION OF SMALL-SCALE FORMULA-FEED PLANT BY METHOD INTEGRATION INTO ITS COMPOSITION THE MODULAR PROCESS LINE FOR PROCESSING LOOSE COMPOUND FEED

abstract 1521908002 issue 152 pp. 12 – 23 31.10.2019 ru 19
The small-scale intra-economic plants producing loose compound feed are outdated and require reconstruction by method of the modern process lines of compound feed granulation or extrusion adding. But such reconstruction requires a production stop. It is unacceptable for agricultural enterprises. The method of small-scale intra-economic formula-feed plant reconstruction is offered. The method consists in integration into composition of the plant of a modular process line for loose compound feed extrusion or granulation without stopping of production. The building for a new process line is created from the constructive modules representing metal frames with overall dimensions of a standard cargo container in which the equipment, ready to application, is installed. The combined multilevel building of a process line for granulation or extrusion is placed near the main factory building of the existing intra-economic enterprise. Buildings additional and the main production lines form two multilevel production factory building. The example of small-scale formula-feed plant reconstruction by method of integration a modular process line for granulation is explained. The line consists of modules for operational storage and dispensing of loose compound feed, conditioning and granulation, cooling, separation of granules. The traditional formula-feed plant of the fixed structure turns into the transformed system because the configuration of the new modular line can be easily changed. The offered method of reconstruction is perspective for application on small-scale intra-economic formula-feed plants as allows to reorganize without stopping operating production preparation of compound feed according to the modern requirements, having increased its quality and period of storage. Period of construction of the plant decreases from several months to several weeks thanks to creation of the building of the new line from ready constructive modules
2177 kb

PNEUMATIC SLIT SPRAYER PARAMETERS STUDY

abstract 1521908008 issue 152 pp. 54 – 67 31.10.2019 ru 5
As a result of scientific analysis of the effective plant protection by spraying them with protective-stimulating liquids, the most progressive pneumohydraulic processing method was chosen, enabling the use of a wide mode range. The proposed pneumatic sprayer design can be used to equip sprayers, pollinators and combined units to perform basic operations with the use of pesticides and fertilizers. Using liquid crushing through exposure to working fluid flowing from the feeding tubes of sprayers (jets) with a high-speed air jet, it was possible to carry out the spraying process in a low-volume and ultra-small-volume way in a highly dispersive airborne jets. To study the air-borne jet parameters, providing the working fluid spraying quality as a polydisperse system, we have used a probabilistic-statistical analysis method. It studies variation range of signs according to the classes. Theoretically, the air-borne jet forming process by a pneumatic slit sprayer was considered. Using the three-factor central composite rotatable uniform plan (CURUP), the influence of three factors (surge tank position in cm, air pressure MPa and the feeding tube inclination angle in degrees) on the sprayer performance and the surface response on the working fluid median-mass diameter was determined. It was found that the response surfaces have a form of a paraboloid, the extremum of which is observed at an air pressure of 0.15 MPa (the center of the plan) and the tube installation angle in the spray housing equal to 60 degrees with the middle surge tank position. The maximum coating density of the treated object was 95 pieces / cm2 at the same position of the surge tank and air pressure in the pneumatic line of 0.3 MPa. It was proved that ultra-low volume spraying can be carried out in wide ranges of initial data while observing spraying quality requirements according to the drop median-mass diameter, the average coating density and their distribution uniformity
1139 kb

ENGINEERING OF TRANSPORT MACHINES SCREW ENGINES FOR RICE AND FISH FARMING FACILITIES

abstract 1521908012 issue 152 pp. 105 – 116 31.10.2019 ru 7
The article considers manufacturing techniques and assembling screw propellers of transport vehicles for rice and fish farms. The increase in technological capabilities, reliability and carrying capacity of transport vehicles is achieved by making the propeller screw, with the possibility of its rotation. We called such propellers screw propellers, since along their perimeter along the entire length, multiple-curved curved surfaces are formed in the form of helical grooves of various configurations, sizes and shapes. The spatial form of the screw propellers is made with screw surfaces in the form of helical grooves, which ensures that the transport machines for rice and fish farms are conveyed on land, on water, through swampy and difficult terrain at a sufficiently high speed. As a result of the work performed, not only the designs of screw propellers and their classification were proposed, in which there is a general principle that allows the development of still unknown structures of propellers, but also their manufacturing techniques. The design of screw propellers was performed using the KOMPAS-3D software package using descriptive geometry and engineering graphics
295 kb

THEORETICAL PROVING THE PARAMETERS OF A UNIT FOR SEEDLING FEEDING TO TRANSPLANTING DEVICE

abstract 1521908014 issue 152 pp. 129 – 140 31.10.2019 ru 4
Transplanting seedling into the field is an extremely important period for all seedling crops, as the plant passes through basic vegetation stages. After carried analysis of seedling transplantation machines utilization it became obvious that they all have low technical and exploitation parameters. The purpose of the research was elaboration of theoretical bases for calculating parameters of a unit for seedling feeding to transplanting device, which implementation will lead to increase efficiency of transplanting. The article presents the results of theoretical researches for proving parameters of a unit for seedling feeding to transplanting device. A system of equations for acting at seedling forces during its transportation from collecting drum to feeding drum is arranged. We have also calculated nomograms for defining drum rotating frequency depending on seedling friction coefficient on surfaces of collecting and feeding drums. Parameters of pneumatic feeding drum were technologically proved. Its principle is equality of capacities of feeding unit and transplanting device. We have elaborated a nomogram for defining feeding drum rotating frequency depending on plant spacing and velocity of transplanting machine
153 kb

SYSTEM FOR THE PROCESSING OF MANUR IN LIQUID FERTILIZERS FOR DISPOSAL BY IRRIGATION OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS

abstract 1521908017 issue 152 pp. 211 – 219 31.10.2019 ru 5
The modern level of cultivation of agricultural animals requires new approaches to the processing and disposal of manure. To do this, it is necessary to develop effective ways of converting waste into organic fertilizers, which, in the form of liquid effluents, make it possible to enhance and preserve the soil fertility of agricultural landscapes. This is especially necessary to be carried out on black soils, where irrigation of crops with prepared and diluted drains has a positive effect on the harvest. Therefore, the creation of manure processing systems by technological sequentially related operations is an urgent problem. Cattle manure is considered as a poly-dispersed system with sedimentation and physical and chemical properties. In this case, the system requires the sequential solution of a number of complex tasks: removal of various inclusions from manure, especially colloidal and fibrous particles; prevention of premature separation of manure during homogenization; preparation of manure for separation into liquid and solid fractions is a basic technological scheme that is universal and applicable to all types of livestock-raising complexes. A feature of the integrated cattle manure disposal line is a lagoon for year-round storage of a certain amount of manure drains prepared for irrigation during the growing season. For the creation of the lagoon, a film coating is used - it works as an anti-filtration screen
2373 kb

THE RATIONALE OF THE RIGID CHARACTERISTICPARAMETERS OF THE COMBINE HARVESTERS OF HIGH PERFORMANCE

abstract 1521908022 issue 152 pp. 257 – 274 31.10.2019 ru 4
The purpose of the study was to substantiate the rigid parameters of tyres in propulsion units for the combine harvesters of high performance. A research method is analytical with the use of a mathematical model of the combine harvester in which damping and rigidity of the drive axle tyres in circumferential and radial directions are taken into account. Values of the rational rigid characteristics of the pneumatic tyre have been generally determined by the ability of the tyre to be deformed so that to reduce the angular, vertical and horizontal skeleton oscillations of a combine harvester to ensure the high-quality technological process of the threshing and harvesting. The specified circumstance gains the special importance at the development and introduction of the new tyre modes for the combine harvesters of high performance. The analysis of the conducted analytical researches has been showed the expediency of using the threads of a cord in the propulsion unit of combine harvesters instead of diagonal or radial tyres of the same standard size with an original position of them. The offered pneumatic tyre of 30.5E-32 used as the leading one, and promotes the reduction of the angular oscillation amplitude and operating speed of a combine and also angular and vertical accelerations up to 1.42 times
1034 kb

THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF CONSTRUCTIVE AND REGIME PARAMETERS OF THE ARABLE AND MILLING UNIT

abstract 1521908023 issue 152 pp. 275 – 287 31.10.2019 ru 6
Pre-planting preparation of soil in the Central part of the North Caucasus according to the traditional technology of cultivation of crops involves the use of single-operation soil processing machines and aggregates. As a result, they have to make multiple passes, resulting in increased energy consumption, soil compaction, and the emergence and development of erosion processes. In addition, the agricultural machinery used is characterized by the low operability and reliability of the working elements and their joint assemblies, which leads to a decrease in productivity, so that the agricultural requirements for the process of pre-sowing soil preparation are often not met. In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, an arable milling unit for pre-sowing soil preparation is proposed. Its structural and technological scheme is justified. The distinctive features of the proposed design are the possibility of the main soil treatment with simultaneous grinding of large soil clumps, lumps, plant residues and levelling of the soil surface; possibility of changing the installation angle of the rotary grinder and depth of soil treatment depending on the type of treated soil; high quality of soil preparation for sowing; provision of energy consumption reduction due to combination of technological operations in preparation of soils for sowing; lack of expensive assemblies and parts; the need for less energy for aggregation when preparing soils for sowing. As a result of the theoretical studies carried out, rational values of the main parameters of the proposed arable milling unit have been established, which have a decisive influence on the process of its operation: speed of movement 1.5... 2.0 m/s; Angle of attack of working element 20... 300; Angular rotation speed of the working tool 20... 25 s-1
190 kb

PROCESS EVALUTION OF SEEDS PRE-SEEDING TREATMENT WITH INFRARED RADIATION

abstract 1511907001 issue 151 pp. 1 – 14 30.09.2019 ru 6
The main subject spotted in this article is a calculation method which helps to depict optimal temperature conditions for seeds stimulation by infrared radiation useful for electromagnetic processing and seed-pelleting with perlit next. The analysis helped to depict that the convenient technical aspects of shortwave infrared radiation is in range 0,76-1,4 mcm. This kind of infrared radiation has the greatest penetrating power into the grain to stimulate. According to the methodology a rapid increase of the temperature of seeds after the critical point reaching during IR treatment leads to the properties deterioration of the of thermolabile materials. The temperature gradient during the IR treatment of seeds has the opposite direction of moisture content and depends on the preliminary humidity of the material. This affects the pre-planting cultivation quality of seeds. To avoid overheating and seeds damage there was a mathematical model of the optimal temperature of the IR radiation calculated. As the result of this method there was obtained the calculation of temperature conditions for IR treatment and heating rate depending on seeds humidity. This calculation method helps to define optimal temperature conditions to avoid harmful influence on seeds due to heating. There was data fitting during this method creation and evaluation which defines the effectiveness and perspective of this elaboration
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