Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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240 kb

OPPORTUNITIES TO REDUCE OPERATING COSTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF LEGUMINOUS CROPS

abstract 1501906001 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 19
The article considers the possibility of reducing the cost of tillage in the production of grain crops. The most important economic characteristic of production is operating costs. In terms of agricultural production, they represent the amount of contributions to wages, depreciation, repairs, and the cost of fuel, lubricants and other consumables. In this regard, the aim of the research was to determine the dynamics of operating costs in the production of legumes. Determination of the dynamics of operating costs was carried out on the basis of the results of studies of energy-saving technologies in a stationary experience. Variants of processing of the soil on the conventional technology was layered subsurface tillage combined unit, UNS-3, the layered subsurface tillage unit CUO-2 and conventional tillage (PN-5-35). No provision was made for zero tillage technology. As a result of the research it was found that on pre-sowing tillage and sowing, the value of operating costs varies for the crops under consideration, but has almost the same values (within each crop) for the methods of the main tillage. More preferable for this type of work is zero tillage, as it provides 21-29% lower operating costs due to direct sowing of crops. The highest operating costs for all the crops under consideration are observed in the main tillage. In the same technological period of work operating costs are the most variable. Thus, depending on the technology of the tillage when growing winter wheat, they change within 117,2-5229,2, the production of spring barley - to 167,8-4517,4 and in the production of peas – to 136,6-4517,4 thousand rubles
1437 kb

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND MEANS OF CULTIVATION

abstract 1501906002 issue 150 pp. 0 – 0 28.06.2019 ru 19
Due to the disconnectedness of production processes, prevention of soil degradation and plant diseases, as well as the difficult establishment of functional dependencies between the parameters of the working bodies and the physicomechanical properties of the soil, the richness of foreign technology, there is the problem of creating innovative structural and technological solutions for basic soil tillage including for the purpose of import substitution. To solve it, KubGAU has developed: “Multifunctional plow” (patent of the Russian Federation No. 2618342); “Plow with rotary bar” (utility model RF patent No. 184196); “Multifunctional plow with a rotary bruce” (positive decision on the patent application of the Russian Federation). Formal models, schemes and descriptions are given
375 kb

ULTRA-LOW VOLUME SPRAYER'S PERFEC-TION FOR GARDENS AND VINEYARDS PRO-CESSING

abstract 1491905001 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 23
The urgency of the task in creating a reliable plant protection system is the improvement and development of new technologies for spraying crops on the basis of fundamentally new agricultural requirements at a higher quality level, increasing productivity, reducing energy costs and greening protective measures. Pneumatic slotted sprayers have great design capabilities allowing obtaining operating parameters necessary for the specific task of the sprayer. In this regard, we have proposed a technological scheme of the sprayer in the garden-vineyard version. To do this, the sprayers are placed in pneumatic ducts of the fans mounted on the sprayers. It is possible to reduce energy and resource costs, to achieve high quality indicators of the process and to increase the level of environmental friendliness by developing technical means for ultra-low-volume spraying. The principal novelty in solving the problem of ultra-low volume spraying is the use of KubSAU design pneumatic sprayers on the sprayer, and the scheme of the technological process, allowing the reduction of the working fluid and pesticides doses rate, resulting in reduced operating costs to support operations: preparation of working fluids and filling the sprayers. To process two rows simultaneously, it is possible to use sprayers equipped with two centrifugal fans with the installation of pneumatic slit sprayers with fixation in the ducts that they overlap, forcing the air from the fan to pass through the atomizer body, mixing with drops of working fluid. In this case, the speed of the air-droplet jets increases and more efficient use of the air jet from the fan occur. Along with the use of sprayers, equipped with KubSAU design pneumatic sprayers, to combat pests and diseases, we propose to use a sprayer to combat weeds in the trunk area of perennial plantations. Thus we have a family of ultra-low volume sprayers with pneumatic slotted sprayers of the Kuban State Agrarian University design
201 kb

RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE TREATMENT BEFORE STORAGE METHOD ON THE QUALITY OF CARROTS

abstract 1491905002 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 8
The article presents the results of a study of the influence of the processing method before storage on the commercial quality of carrot roots during storage. The object of the research was carrot of the Abaco variety. Objects of study were stored for 21 days at + (25 ± 1) ° C and 56 days at + (2 ± 1) ° C. Roots were treated with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF ELF) and Vitaplan biopreparation separately and in combination. As a result of the research, it was established that the complex treatment of EMF ELF and biopreparation allows increasing the yield of standard carrot products compared to the control: 11.8% at storage temperature + (2 ± 1) ° C, 24.1% at storage temperature + (25 ± 1) ° C. A reduction in the total losses of carrots, treated with complex EMF ELF and biological product, was found by 5.8% at storage temperature + (2 ± 1) ° C and by 12.4% at storage temperature + (25 ± 1) ° C
585 kb

THE DEVELOPMENT AND TEST RESULTS OF AN AUTOMATIC GEAR BOX FOR A TRACTOR OF CLASS 5 WITH AN ELASTIC DAMPER MECHANISM IN TRANSMISSION

abstract 1481904001 issue 148 pp. 0 – 0 30.04.2019 ru 8
The aim of the work is to establish rational parameters on the basis of analytical and experimental research, in terms of obtaining the maximum performance of the unit based on a class 5 tractor, an automatic gear shift system. We have proposed a device for automatic gear shifting, in which the pressure of the working fluid in the pneumatic-hydraulic accumulator installed in the power transmission of the tractor of the elastic-damping mechanism, equivalent to the engine torque, was used as an input signal. The task of optimizing the tracking device and the actuator of the automatic shift system is the definition based on the theory of automatic regulation of the rational flow cross section of the damper throttle and the time delay of the system response to ensure the input signal with the necessary filtering in frequency and phase. The study presents the results of the tests carried out under laboratory conditions, which showed that the automatic gear shift system provides gear shifting at an external load frequency in the range from 0 to 0.24 s-1, direct assessments of the quality of the automatic gear shift system: oscillation (0), overshoot (0%) and time of the transition process (2...4 s), meet the requirements for their work. The analysis of the results obtained in experimental studies showed that the productivity of the machine-tractor plowing unit with a class 5 tractor-model equipped with the developed system of automatic gear change is higher by 10.6%, and the specific fuel consumption is 8.1% lower compared to the serial version
329 kb

PRODUCTION PROSPECTS FOR PROTEIN FEEDS MADE FROM SUNFLOWER SEEDS IN SMALL FARMING ENTERPRISES

abstract 1481904002 issue 148 pp. 0 – 0 30.04.2019 ru 8
The quality of feed is one of the main factors determining the development of industries necessary for the country. In this regard, extrusion technologies for processing raw materials of plant origin are of great interest. The prospect of processing plant raw materials using thermoplastic extrusion is due to two main reasons: first, the large volume and variety of products produced using this technology, and, secondly, the economic effect that gives the production of extrusion products by expanding the consumer properties of the feed produced. Extrusion equipment not only expands the range of feed, but also increases the employment of the rural population during the off-season. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to assess the prospects for the introduction of protein feed production by extruders from sunflower seeds in small agricultural enterprises. The study used an analytical review and analysis of published and patent information on technical means – extruders used for the production of protein feed from oilseeds, such as sunflower. The analysis of literature sources on the work of the existing forage preparation equipment showed that serial machines are metal-consuming, energy-consuming, used with low efficiency, due to technical and technological shortcomings. The analytical review of patent sources of extruders for preparation of compound feeds for the purpose of identification of the direction of their development and elimination of shortcomings of the existing is given. Modernization of extruders for the preparation of feed in the patent information goes in different ways, depending on the goal, which will improve their productivity and quality of protein feed. Serial production of technical equipment for the preparation of protein feed allows you to compete with foreign technology. Therefore, the development and improvement of serial domestic equipment for the preparation of protein feed from sunflower seeds for functional purposes are competitive and significantly cheaper and can reduce energy costs for their extrusion, which is an urgent task
149 kb

OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS OF MIXING FEED

abstract 1481904003 issue 148 pp. 0 – 0 30.04.2019 ru 7
Based on the analysis of the designs of feed mixers for farm animals, the option of using a two-stage mixer is being investigated. The proposed design of the mixer allows you to improve the quality of the feed mixture and reduce energy costs per process. To optimize the mixing workflow, the design parameters of the machine and their influence on the technological process under various working conditions are determined. It has been established that the design of the mixer and the initial physical and mechanical properties of the components of the feed mixture directly affect the most important technological characteristic of the installation, its performance. Therefore, the study aims to optimize the process of mixing feed
376 kb

THE SIMULATION EXPERIENCE OF THE WORKING BODIES OF THE EQUIPMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES USING METHODS OF ENGINEERING GEOMETRY AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS

abstract 1471903001 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 5
The article presents the results of the research on modeling of working bodies of agricultural equipment by methods of engineering geometry and computer graphics. The design and the principle of operation of the equipment on the basis of working bodies in the form of screw drums is shown on the example of a device for the preparation of concentrated feed
782 kb

METHODS AND RESULTS OF THE SEED MATERIAL FRICTION COEFFICIENT DETERMINING USING AN AUTOMATED DEVICE

abstract 1471903004 issue 147 pp. 0 – 0 29.03.2019 ru 7
The article describes the automated method of friction coefficient determination of row crops seeds using different types of surface, including modern polymer and composite materials. It is revealed that the friction coefficient characterizes the friction properties of seeds arising in the process of mechanical action during harvesting, transportation, storage and processing, as well as changes over time depending on the state of the surfaces, contact time, humidity, relative velocity and other parameters. The problem of lack of friction coefficients values for rest and dynamic friction coefficients for the polymeric and composite materials which are actively applied today at industrial production of agricultural machinery is designated. The design and general view of the device which helps to determine friction coefficient excluding the human factor (operator error) are presented. The operation principle of the developed device is described and the processing method of experimental data is given. Experimental data were obtained and statistical processing was carried out to identify the static and dynamic friction coefficients of seeds. Integral ( ) and differential ( ) graph for the distribution of friction coefficient average values for pairs "type of seed material – type of friction surface" are constructed
255 kb

INFLUENCE OF THE METHOD OF TREATMENT BEFORE STORAGE AND STORAGE PARAMETERS ON THE VALUE OF GENERAL LOSSES OF CARROTS

abstract 1461902001 issue 146 pp. 0 – 0 28.02.2019 ru 7
The article presents the results of studying the influence of the method of treatment before storage and storage parameters, including the relative air humidity, on the value of general losses of carrots. The taproots treatment before putting into storage was carried out with electromagnetic fields of extremely low frequency and the bio-preparation Vitaplan. After treatment, the taproots were kept at a temperature of +2±1°С for 56 days and +25±1°С for 21 days. In the process, the relative air humidity was changed from 40 to 90%. At a storage temperature of +2±1°C, the lowest total loss was observed at a relative humidity of 90%. At a storage temperature of +25±1°С, the optimal, from the point of view of decreasing the general losses, turned out to be the relative air humidity of 70%: with decreasing relative air humidity to 40%, significant increase of natural losses was observed, because the taproots were losing water intensively, and with increasing relative air humidity to 90%, favorable conditions were created for the growth of pathogenic microflora, which caused significant losses from the microbiological decay. The method of pretreatment of carrot taproots, providing the lowest general loss during storage in all the studied conditions, was joint treatment with ELF EMF and the bio-preparation called Vitaplan
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