Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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abstract 1511907001 issue 151 pp. 1 – 14 30.09.2019 ru 2
The main subject spotted in this article is a calculation method which helps to depict optimal temperature conditions for seeds stimulation by infrared radiation useful for electromagnetic processing and seed-pelleting with perlit next. The analysis helped to depict that the convenient technical aspects of shortwave infrared radiation is in range 0,76-1,4 mcm. This kind of infrared radiation has the greatest penetrating power into the grain to stimulate. According to the methodology a rapid increase of the temperature of seeds after the critical point reaching during IR treatment leads to the properties deterioration of the of thermolabile materials. The temperature gradient during the IR treatment of seeds has the opposite direction of moisture content and depends on the preliminary humidity of the material. This affects the pre-planting cultivation quality of seeds. To avoid overheating and seeds damage there was a mathematical model of the optimal temperature of the IR radiation calculated. As the result of this method there was obtained the calculation of temperature conditions for IR treatment and heating rate depending on seeds humidity. This calculation method helps to define optimal temperature conditions to avoid harmful influence on seeds due to heating. There was data fitting during this method creation and evaluation which defines the effectiveness and perspective of this elaboration
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abstract 1511907011 issue 151 pp. 116 – 129 30.09.2019 ru 2
The objective of the research was to study the patterns of deformation with the different internal structure in a tire envelope with the standard size of 30.5-32 in propulsion units for modern mobile farm vehicles. The research method is experimental with the use of «a tire tester» and specially developed devices for determining the deformations of the tire envelope concerning the rim in circular and radial directions. Output indicators of a wheel with the pneumatic tire are determined by the ability of the tire to be deformed so that at small hysteresis losses in the rubber-cord envelope the largest area of the contact with a substructure have been created. This circumstance has special significance when developing the tires for mobile farm vehicles with the high power saturation, the patterns of deformation of which are poorly studied now. The analysis of the carried out experimental researches has shown the expediency of application of the experimental tires with the same standard size, offered in the work, on the propulsion units of the mobile farm vehicles instead of diagonal and radial tires. The rolling resistance of the experimental tires 30.5E-32 is lower than the rolling resistance of serially produced tires, and the developed area of contact is higher and that provides the decrease in the condensing impact on the soil
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abstract 1521908001 issue 152 pp. 1 – 11 31.10.2019 ru 2
Slope land (ravines, gullies, mountain areas) for many countries of the world are important areas of economic activity, and for some they are the only living space. In the mountainous areas there are cereals and feed, fruit, citrus, nut, berry and essential oil crops, grapes, tea and many others. On slope lands, soil preparation by terracing is widely used. The article considers modern technologies and machines for the construction of terraces in order to create protective and fruit plantations on them and to involve new areas in agricultural turnover. There are two main ways to create terraces: hinged and rifled. Most often, when terracing on tractor-passable slopes, various plows and graders (floor terraces) are used, and on tractor-passable slopes there are universal bulldozers and terrasers (rifled terraces). The shuttle plow PCHS-4-35 and revolving plows are especially convenient for the device of floor terraces, with the help of which it is possible to significantly increase labor productivity by reducing the time for idle runs. For rifled terraces, we use a large complex of machines, the most productive of which are: terraser-Ripper TR-2A; terraced equipment TK-4; terraser T-4M, etc. The use of the proposed complex of machines in the construction of raised and rifled terraces will help to increase productivity and involve new lands in agricultural turnover, which will ultimately increase food security of the Russian Federation
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abstract 1521908023 issue 152 pp. 275 – 287 31.10.2019 ru 2
Pre-planting preparation of soil in the Central part of the North Caucasus according to the traditional technology of cultivation of crops involves the use of single-operation soil processing machines and aggregates. As a result, they have to make multiple passes, resulting in increased energy consumption, soil compaction, and the emergence and development of erosion processes. In addition, the agricultural machinery used is characterized by the low operability and reliability of the working elements and their joint assemblies, which leads to a decrease in productivity, so that the agricultural requirements for the process of pre-sowing soil preparation are often not met. In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, an arable milling unit for pre-sowing soil preparation is proposed. Its structural and technological scheme is justified. The distinctive features of the proposed design are the possibility of the main soil treatment with simultaneous grinding of large soil clumps, lumps, plant residues and levelling of the soil surface; possibility of changing the installation angle of the rotary grinder and depth of soil treatment depending on the type of treated soil; high quality of soil preparation for sowing; provision of energy consumption reduction due to combination of technological operations in preparation of soils for sowing; lack of expensive assemblies and parts; the need for less energy for aggregation when preparing soils for sowing. As a result of the theoretical studies carried out, rational values of the main parameters of the proposed arable milling unit have been established, which have a decisive influence on the process of its operation: speed of movement 1.5... 2.0 m/s; Angle of attack of working element 20... 300; Angular rotation speed of the working tool 20... 25 s-1
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abstract 1511907003 issue 151 pp. 24 – 32 30.09.2019 ru 3
Planetary mechanisms are used to create the working movement of the Executive bodies of metallurgical and mining machines. Roller working bodies, for the drive of which planetary mechanisms are used, are increasingly being used in the designs of harvesting machines. The processes occurring in the differential threshing devices of harvesting machines are poorly understood, due to the lack of information about the properties of the material in the event of rapidly changing stresses in them. This work is the result of the analysis of previous theoretical as well as experimental studies in the field of threshing. We describe the technological scheme of the shock-vibration threshing device and the principle of its operation. The possible variants of arrangement of drum rolls and drumming are considered. The relationship between the angular velocities of the drum, the drum rolls and the sub-drum is elucidated. Installation of three-sided rollers on the threshing device according to the scheme proposed by us allows additional shaking of the whole threshed rice mass from 75 to 110 times per second
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abstract 1511907019 issue 151 pp. 221 – 231 30.09.2019 ru 3
The purpose of this research is to increase the production of concentrated (protein) feed in agricultural enterprises through the use of electronic equipment or robotics and precise precision livestock technology, which will reduce the unit cost of their production. According to the academician L. P. Kormakovsky, accurate, precision technology enables economical use of material resources, which are feeds and their ingredients in the feed, and to obtain optimum results at the highest cost. The most important direction of development of accurate technologies in animal husbandry is the preparation of complete feed mixtures and normalized feeding of groups of animals formed by its productivity. One of the key conditions of efficiency of precise breeding and the use of sophisticated electronic means of control of technological processes is the quality of the feed. Over the past 15 years, concentrated feed forms have been the basis of the diet of most types of farm animals and is the main reserve for increasing their productivity. The article considers models of robotic means of different countries of producers, used in agricultural enterprises for the preparation and distribution of protein feed. The use of robotics currently makes it possible to facilitate human work, and in some cases to replace it. Replacement of a human in all the spheres of activity, for example in preparation of protein forages, at agricultural companies will allow to increase productivity of forage preparation equipment, quality of forages and to provide agriculture of the country with the domestic forages. However, the production of domestic robotics, which are designed for the preparation of protein feed on the basis of oilseeds (sunflower meal, soybean, etc.) is absent, which is a scientific problem. The production of robotics is most developed in European countries. Robotic means which carry out distribution of protein forages, are applied to a lesser extent at the domestic agricultural enterprises, in connection with their features
548 kb


abstract 1511907020 issue 151 pp. 232 – 243 30.09.2019 ru 3
Reserves of expansion of the areas under fruit plantings in the central part of the North Caucasus are limited, one of solutions of this problem is involvement in an agricultural turn and, in particular, under fruit plantings a little or the slope lands, absolutely inconvenient for one-year cultures, having optimum climatic conditions. Currently, scientifically based technologies of cultivation of gardens on slopes are developed for foothill and mountainous areas of the North Caucasus in relation to zones. Large corporations, as well as medium and small business are engaged in production of fruits in the North Caucasian Federal District. One of problems which vendors of fruits face it is the shortage of the equipment on care of trunk strips and row-spacings of fruit plantings. Mechanized technologies of flat gardening are a little effective in specific conditions of mountain and foothill agriculture where the main limiting factor is the soil fertility. At the same time, the question of the accelerated creation of a humic layer in the trunk strips, improvements of the water and food modes of fruit plantings on slope lands is particularly acute. The carried-out analysis of a system of maintenance of the soil in gardens showed that the most rational is the cespitose and humous system providing bevelling of vegetation with its leaving on the surface of the soil in the form of mulch. However, lots the mower-grinders produced by the industry have rather low rotating speed of a rotational operating part (540 … 840 min-1); they do not provide high-quality crushing of grass vegetation, are incapable to transport crushed grassy masses in trunk strips of fruit-trees. In this regard, we offer a construction of a unit for processing of row-spacings and the trunk strips of fruit plantings. As a result of the conducted theoretical researches, we have set rational values of key parameters of the offered unit
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abstract 1521908002 issue 152 pp. 12 – 23 31.10.2019 ru 3
The small-scale intra-economic plants producing loose compound feed are outdated and require reconstruction by method of the modern process lines of compound feed granulation or extrusion adding. But such reconstruction requires a production stop. It is unacceptable for agricultural enterprises. The method of small-scale intra-economic formula-feed plant reconstruction is offered. The method consists in integration into composition of the plant of a modular process line for loose compound feed extrusion or granulation without stopping of production. The building for a new process line is created from the constructive modules representing metal frames with overall dimensions of a standard cargo container in which the equipment, ready to application, is installed. The combined multilevel building of a process line for granulation or extrusion is placed near the main factory building of the existing intra-economic enterprise. Buildings additional and the main production lines form two multilevel production factory building. The example of small-scale formula-feed plant reconstruction by method of integration a modular process line for granulation is explained. The line consists of modules for operational storage and dispensing of loose compound feed, conditioning and granulation, cooling, separation of granules. The traditional formula-feed plant of the fixed structure turns into the transformed system because the configuration of the new modular line can be easily changed. The offered method of reconstruction is perspective for application on small-scale intra-economic formula-feed plants as allows to reorganize without stopping operating production preparation of compound feed according to the modern requirements, having increased its quality and period of storage. Period of construction of the plant decreases from several months to several weeks thanks to creation of the building of the new line from ready constructive modules
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abstract 1521908008 issue 152 pp. 54 – 67 31.10.2019 ru 3
As a result of scientific analysis of the effective plant protection by spraying them with protective-stimulating liquids, the most progressive pneumohydraulic processing method was chosen, enabling the use of a wide mode range. The proposed pneumatic sprayer design can be used to equip sprayers, pollinators and combined units to perform basic operations with the use of pesticides and fertilizers. Using liquid crushing through exposure to working fluid flowing from the feeding tubes of sprayers (jets) with a high-speed air jet, it was possible to carry out the spraying process in a low-volume and ultra-small-volume way in a highly dispersive airborne jets. To study the air-borne jet parameters, providing the working fluid spraying quality as a polydisperse system, we have used a probabilistic-statistical analysis method. It studies variation range of signs according to the classes. Theoretically, the air-borne jet forming process by a pneumatic slit sprayer was considered. Using the three-factor central composite rotatable uniform plan (CURUP), the influence of three factors (surge tank position in cm, air pressure MPa and the feeding tube inclination angle in degrees) on the sprayer performance and the surface response on the working fluid median-mass diameter was determined. It was found that the response surfaces have a form of a paraboloid, the extremum of which is observed at an air pressure of 0.15 MPa (the center of the plan) and the tube installation angle in the spray housing equal to 60 degrees with the middle surge tank position. The maximum coating density of the treated object was 95 pieces / cm2 at the same position of the surge tank and air pressure in the pneumatic line of 0.3 MPa. It was proved that ultra-low volume spraying can be carried out in wide ranges of initial data while observing spraying quality requirements according to the drop median-mass diameter, the average coating density and their distribution uniformity
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abstract 1521908012 issue 152 pp. 105 – 116 31.10.2019 ru 3
The article considers manufacturing techniques and assembling screw propellers of transport vehicles for rice and fish farms. The increase in technological capabilities, reliability and carrying capacity of transport vehicles is achieved by making the propeller screw, with the possibility of its rotation. We called such propellers screw propellers, since along their perimeter along the entire length, multiple-curved curved surfaces are formed in the form of helical grooves of various configurations, sizes and shapes. The spatial form of the screw propellers is made with screw surfaces in the form of helical grooves, which ensures that the transport machines for rice and fish farms are conveyed on land, on water, through swampy and difficult terrain at a sufficiently high speed. As a result of the work performed, not only the designs of screw propellers and their classification were proposed, in which there is a general principle that allows the development of still unknown structures of propellers, but also their manufacturing techniques. The design of screw propellers was performed using the KOMPAS-3D software package using descriptive geometry and engineering graphics