Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL STRUCTURE AND CONDITION OF STANDS IN “YAMKA” PARK OF PETROZVODSK

abstract 1081504096 issue 108 pp. 1316 – 1328 30.04.2015 ru 0
The article presents the results of the evaluation of the spatial structure and condition of trees and shrubs in different types of park stands located in the park called “Yamka” in Petrozavodsk. Features of planning and spatial distribution of trees and shrubs have been identified. The species and number of plants in good, satisfactory and unsatisfactory states were determined. The conducted analysis of species distribution and the number of trees and shrubs in each category of state allows suggesting the activities for reconstruction of park stands
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GENETIC ANALYSIS OF TRAITS INHERITANCE IN DEVELOPMENT OF COLD TOLERANT RICE VARIETIES FOR THE CONDITIONS OF RUSSIAN RICE-GROWING

abstract 1281704093 issue 128 pp. 1320 – 1332 28.04.2017 ru 192
Hybridization was performed for nine hybrid combinations between Russian early-ripening varieties Novator and Serpantin and South Korean cold-tolerant introduced samples Odaebueo и Tinbubueo. As a result, 283 hybrid caryopses in eight combinations were obtained, which were later studied in growing conditions. Study of trait inheritance in F1 hybrids was conducted, heterosis effect of studied hybrid populations was determined by productivity and individual elements of yield structure, using indicators of the degree of phenotypic dominance (hp) of quantitative traits. Significant variability in agronomic traits of F1 hybrids was determined. The manifestation of heterosis in productivity was noted in combination Odaebueo / Tinbubueo, in which super dominance was observed by all the studied traits forming productivity, in the hybrid progeny. Using the "halves method", analysis for cold resistance of 227 F2 plants in eight hybrid populations was performed. Seven lines with increased resistance to low positive temperatures during germination were identified in five hybrid combinations, which is 3% of the studied material. It is shown that in breeding for cold resistance as mother plants in hybridization it is necessary to use rice varieties (samples) that are resistant to low positive temperatures during germination, and as paternal - more productive varieties, adapted to soil and climatic conditions of rice growing area of the Krasnodar Region
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CONTENT OF ELEMENTS OF FEED IN PLANTS OF WINTER WHEAT AT REMINERALIZATION OF BLACK LEACHED SOIL

abstract 1291705023 issue 129 pp. 265 – 275 31.05.2017 ru 193
The article shows the ninth year of research on the remineralization of leached chernozem. In the plants of winter wheat, the content of macro and micronutrients of nutrition under remineralization of leached chernozem was investigated. It is established that when introducing rocks, the content of food elements in plants rises
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THE ROLE OF THE AMBROSIA LEAF BEETLE ZYGOGRMMA SUTURALIS (F.) (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE), IN THE SUPPRESSION OF RAGWEED AMBROSIA IN THE PRIMORSKY REGION OF RUSSIA

abstract 1311707100 issue 131 pp. 1204 – 1224 29.09.2017 ru 208
Intensification of agriculture during the twentieth century was accompanied by an increase in international trade, resulting in the resettlement of many species across continents. As a result of these processes, many adventives species have become economically significant and dangerous plants in agro and urban biosensors. One such plant is Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., imported from North America to Russia. The use of chemical means of suppression of A. artemisiifolia L. often does not give positive results in agrocenoses, because of its biomorphological features. In urban areas, within the boundaries of sanitary zones, the use of chemicals is prohibited. Therefore, the most promising direction in the suppression of ragweed ambrosia is the ecologies method. The article discusses the possibility of using an ambrosia leaf beetle in the feeding of ragweed in the territory of Russia
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PROCESSING METHODS OF THE INTENSIFICATION OF EXTRACTION OF NUTRIENTS FROM FRUITS OF WILD PLANTS

abstract 1321708035 issue 132 pp. 442 – 451 31.10.2017 ru 212
The nutrient structure of fruits of the Mountain ash of ordinary Sorbus aucuparia L., sloe of Prunus spinosa and their extracts is investigated. Inside them, the standard methods in biochemistry have determined the content of extractive substances, sugars, titrable acids, vitamins C and P, phenolic and pectinaceous substances. Results of analyses demonstrate that the fruits of wild plants ripening in the conditions of Dagestan – mountain ashes and sloe - can be effectively used as raw materials for receiving extracts which are rich in vitamins, carbohydrates and phenolic connections. The possibility of production of highquality nutrient-rich extracts from these fruits with application of various technological modes and ways of extraction is revealed: duration of insisting of raw materials; various concentration of ethanol in an extractant and ratios raw materials/ extractant. Results of researches demonstrate that at a ratio of raw materials/extractant 1:3 and the 70% content of ethanol in the extractant have come the greatest extraction from vitamin fruits P (routine) and phenols which made respectively 56,0-65,7% and 51,4-68,3%. Increase in extraction of titrable acids and vitamin C is noted at 50% concentration of ethanol in the extractant. The maximum release of sugars has come from all fruit substrata at 30% ethanol in the extractant. Results of biochemical analyses of extracts have shown that carrying out extraction in the way of double insisting on condition of selection of optimum: concentration of ethanol in the extractant, ratios of the raw materials/ extractant and the best time of insisting, allow to provide on average a 55-60% exit of nutrients from the studied fruit raw materials
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STRUCTURING THE INFORMATION SYSTEM OF DATABASE "PARAMETERS OF QUALITY OF GRAIN" IN RICE PLANT BREEDING

abstract 1341710111 issue 134 pp. 1437 – 1447 29.12.2017 ru 212
In breeding programs, evaluation of initial material is made on all the stages of developing the variety. Great difficulties for the breeding process are made by absence of modern mechanisms for storing, retrieving, manipulating the relevant data, and using the information previously obtained for use in solving the set breeding task. In order to organize the management of breeding process for development of high-quality rice varieties, based on the urgency of problem of intellectual analysis of data, the Database "Rice Quality" was designed as a set of structured data - the rice quality characteristics identified in the stages of the process of developing variety belonging to the "Rice". In the domain model, the infologic model, a set of parameters for evaluating rice quality in terms of out-of-program components is defined. The program is written in the Microsoft Access database environment using built-in query building tools, forms, reports. The structure of the developed tables includes static and refreshed directories in which the necessary information is stored, the tables are combined into one-to-many relationships, while ensuring data integrity, cascading updates and deletion of fields
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OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURE OF SOWING AREAS AT APPLICATION OF METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL DESIGN FOR TERMS OF FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

abstract 1331709022 issue 133 pp. 263 – 274 30.11.2017 ru 214
Alternation of crops, will remain a fundamental element of zonal technologies of their cultivation for a long time. Application of methods of mathematical model operation will allow to come to new level in the solution of the questions of effective use of an arable land, through application of models optimizing it. Results of researches which basis data of long-term observations are will be especially valuable. They used data of the long-lived stationary experiments on studying of alternation of crops in crop rotations of last more than five rotation. Stationary experiences are located in a forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia on the fields FGBNU "SIBNIISKH". The purpose of researches consisted in optimization of use of an arable land at application of methods of mathematical model operation for preservation of soil fertility. The model allowing when performing particular conditions is given in work (balance of a humus, work expense, a metabolic cost, etc.) to optimize use of an arable land against the background of preservation of soil fertility of the soil, receiving production, economic and power efficiency. It is shown that at alternation of grain crops with clear steam, formation of a harvest happens due to natural fertility of the soil what the negative balance of a humus which reaches 0,18 – 0,78 tons from hectare testifies to. At alternation of field cultures without clear steam the harvest was formed against the background of reproduction of organic matter of the soil, due to increase in vegetable oddments from use of fertilizers, the balance of a humus was positive – 0,15 – 0,28 tons from hectare. Use along with clear steam, busy steam, colza on green fertilizer, and also straw as organic fertilizer for grain crops, 2,01 tons from hectare of commodity grain were received, at a share of clear steam – 16,8%, busy steam – 11%, summer grain – 72,2% of arable land. Increasing in crop rotations of West Siberian Square with use as organic fertilizer of straw, busy vapors and green fertilizers, it is possible to achieve reproduction of fertility of the soil with some decrease in an exit of commodity grain to 2 tons from hectare
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THE EFFECT OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SOIL PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTY CHANGE

abstract 1291705085 issue 129 pp. 1172 – 1182 31.05.2017 ru 220
Soil profiles were made in intensive apple orchard in the agricultural enterprises in Lipetsk and Tambov regions in 2015. Drip irrigation in year rates of 500-550 m3 was carried out since 2010. During the research we determined the soil density, the solid phase density, aggregate composition, particle size distribution, the content of hydrolyzable nitrogen and humus by conventional methods. As a result of drip irrigation can increase dust-like fraction in dark gray forest soil, whereas in chernozems this index did not change significantly. In the black earth soil was noted the process of increasing the proportion of mud fraction due to mineral part chernozem destruction. In both soil types was increased sand content. It was found that drip irrigation improves some of the soil water-physical properties, such as a soil structure coefficient and the content of agronomical valuable aggregates in a layer of 20-40 cm. There was also noted that with increasing soil depth was reduced humus and hydrolyzable nitrogen content. In aggregate analysis, it was found that dark-gray forest soil the amount of water-stable aggregates increased, while meadow chernozem leached soil decreased. Data of the aggregate analysis revealed that in the dark-gray forest soil the amount of water-stable aggregates increased as a result of drip irrigation, while in meadow chernozem leached soil decreased. It recommends by drip irrigation application permanent monitoring of the soil humus content
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INFLUENCE OF FERTIGATION, DRIP IRRIGATION AND FOLIAR NUTRITION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF APPLE TREES, FRUIT QUALITY AND SOIL PROPERTIES IN INTENSIVE ORCHARD OF THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION

abstract 1301706070 issue 130 pp. 958 – 974 30.06.2017 ru 220
The trials were conducted in 2013-2015. Research objects: apple trees cv. Zhigulevskoye/62-396, year of planting – 2007, at 4,5x1m. Place of research – experimental orchard of ”I.V. Michurin Federal scientific centre " in Tambov region. The goal of research: to study the effect of fertigation and foliar nutrition in an intensive apple orchard. During the research there were done yield records, was determined the content of nutrients in leaves and soil. In the soil there was also determined humus content and acidity, fruits were analyzed on vitamin C, saccharides and organic acids contents. Nitrogen in leaves and soil was determined by Kjeldahl method, phosphorus by photocalorimeter KFK-3, potassium and calcium by flame photometer Jenway PFP-7. We have established the optimal average application rate for fertigation in conditions of the Central Chernozem zone of Russia, which could be used to calculate specific application rates with data of soil-leaf diagnostics. In our research, it is shown that the use of this application rate had no significant negative impact on the studied parameters of soil. It is shown that the biochemical composition of fruits is largely determined by weather conditions of the year of vegetation and foliar nutrition. Maximum efficiency of measures for mineral supply optimizing is achieved only with the good combination of fertigation and foliar nutrition
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PECULIARITIES OF AGROBIOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TECHNICAL WHITE MUSCAT GRAPES OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

abstract 1341710110 issue 134 pp. 1412 – 1436 29.12.2017 ru 221
The results of comparative analysis of three white muscat grades of grapes Viorika, the Muscat de Yaloven and the Muscat onitskan according to the biological indicators of fructification, productivity, quality of berries, mechanical structure of bunches, suitability for manufacture of direct extraction juice and dry wines are depicted in the article. All studied grades differ by high percent of fruiting runaways and high factors of fruiting and fructification. The highest factors of fruiting and fructification of runaways are reflected at grade Viorika, and the lowest - at a grade the Muscat de Yaloven. Biological indicators of fructification of runaways according to the length of a fruit spear are high and rather levelled at all grades. That is why, depending on bushes forming, it is possible to apply short and average (6-7 buds) length of vine cutting. Biological indicators of fructification of runaways from angular buds and sleeping buds are high enough, that shows to good regenerative ability of studied grades. Grades Viorika and the Muscat de Yaloven are tall, and the Muscat onitskan is average height. Degree of ripening of runaways at grades Viorika and the Muscat onitskan is good, at a grade the Muscat de Yaloven - satisfactory. Productivity of grades Viorika, Muscat de Yaloven and the Muscat onitskan is 77,94; 81,52 and 72,72 centner/hectares, and efficiency of runaway - 199,5; 193 and 221,9 with a significant difference between grades on both indicators. The exit of a mash at grades was 77,5-79,4 %. According to the contents of solids, sugars and acids, grapes of all grades correspond to requirements for manufacture of high-quality direct extraction juice. From grapes of these grades, it is possible to produce high-quality direct extraction juice under the name of ampelographic and blended grades. Sampling estimation of dry wines from grapes of these grades fluctuates from 7,6 to 7,8 points: 7,8 (Viorika), 7,7 (the Muscat onitskan), 7,6 (the Muscat de Yaloven)
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