Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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140 kb

EFFICIENCY OF USING COMBINED UNITS WHEN PREPARING SOIL UNDER WINTER CROPS

abstract 1491905012 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 18
Issues associated with the use of combined units in the preparation of the soil are relevant and of scientific and practical interest. Relevance increases when it comes to the cultivation of the main crop - winter wheat. In this regard, the presented results on the effectiveness of the use of combined units in the preparation of soil for winter crops are important. They are important primarily from a practical point of view. Experimental studies were conducted in the conditions of many years of stationary experience in the FSUE "ANC" Donskoy ", Zernograd, Rostov Region and in the Krasnodar region, LLC "Step". The efficiency of the use of combined units KUM-4, APK-4, developed at SKNIIMESH, now FSUE “ANC “Donskoy” in the cultivation of winter barley and winter wheat is considered. The technological process of tillage using combined units consists of several technological operations performed simultaneously. Disk working bodies chop plant residues and destroy weeds. At the same time, a network of cracks in the underlying soil horizons is laid. Next are flat-cutting working bodies that loosen the soil already at the set depth. There is a cutting of the root system of weeds, loosening the remaining non-loosened soil layer to the required depth, the formation of a flat bottom of the “furrow”, the separation of erosion-hazardous soil particles to the bottom of the furrow. Next, a roller - a compactor - compactor enters the work, which provides regrinding of soil lumps on the surface and subcompaction of the treated layer. The last in the process chain is a mulch roller, which ensures the formation of a compacted seed bed for seeds with simultaneous mulching of the compacted soil layer. The use of combined units in the technologies of cultivation of winter barley and wheat allowed to achieve a reduction in the number of technological operations by 1,5-2,5 times, an increase in the productivity of winter wheat by 0,4 t / ha (9%), a reduction in fuel consumption by 40%, operating costs 1,4 times with the economic effect of 1500 rubles / ha and the profitability of production of 140%
11281 kb

AUTOMATED SYSTEM-COGNITIVE ANALYSIS OF THE DEPENDENCE OF SUBJECTIVE SOMMELIER WINE QUALITY ASSESSMENT ON ITS OBJECTIVE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

abstract 1491905015 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 24
Sommelier evaluates the quality of wine on the basis of their subjective feelings. At the same time, what the sommelier says when evaluating wine, it is difficult or impossible to rationally understand for the uninitiated to this art. The process of assessing the quality of wine by sommelier can not be formalized and is carried out entirely at the sensual level. Sometimes, different sommeliers differently evaluate the same wine poured from the same barrel into bottles of different prestige, with stickers differing in the number of stars. This raises at least two legitimate and natural questions. The first question is whether any subjective sommelier evaluations of the quality of wine are connected with its objective physical and chemical properties? The second question arises in the case of a positive answer to the first one: is it possible to analyze the objective methods of physical and chemical properties of wine to predict its subjective assessment by various sommeliers or some "generalized sommelier", generalizing many such subjective assessments? This article is devoted to obtaining reasoned answers to these questions. The purpose of this work, which is of great scientific and practical interest, is to create a model that provides an automated assessment of the quality of wine based on the analysis of its objective physical and chemical properties, coinciding with its sommelier-evaluation. To achieve this goal, we use Automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis) and its software tools – the intelligent system called "Eidos". A detailed numerical example based on 1599 real-world examples of sommelier evaluation of wine quality with known physical and chemical properties is considered. In addition to the answer to the two questions in the article, there is a study of the created system-cognitive model
132 kb

AGROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NEW STRAWBERRY VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE PRIKUBANSKAYA ZONE OF GARDENING IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1491905016 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 27
The article presents the results of studies on the biological characteristics of growth and fruiting, as well as the yield of adaptive varieties of strawberries in the conditions of the Prikubanskaya horticulture zone of the Krasnodar region. The objects of study are new and promising varieties of strawberries: Zenga-zengana (k), Onda, San-Diaz. The experiments were performed using the method of randomized reps. In the experiment there are 3 options, in each there are three replications of 20 plants. Variants and repetitions are placed sequentially. Agricultural records of the growth and fruiting of strawberry plants were carried out according to generally accepted methods; statistical processing of research results was carried out using the analysis of a variance method described by B.A.Dospehov. The results of our research showed that Zenga-zengana bushes (control) turned out to be the tallest. In the Onda variety, the height of the bush is 2 cm less than in the control variety; and San Diez varieties are 4 cm, respectively. It should be noted that the most undersized plants require a smaller area of nutrition. It has been established that flowers pollinated a few days after their disclosure develop more rapidly into berries than those that were pollinated immediately after opening. Pollen in flowers of the first order is less than in flowers of the third or fourth order. The stamens of the first flowers are often underdeveloped, their pollen is released and germinates worse. In our experience, the average weight of fruits and the yield as a whole depends on the biological productivity of the varieties. Onda was the most fruitful variety, and the rest varieties were at the control level
652 kb

BIOPOSITIVE METHODS OF PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF ERODED AND DISTURBED AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL ZONES

abstract 1491905017 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 34
The struggle against soil erosion and the restoration of disturbed lands is a pressing issue for the regions of the North Caucasus and southern Russia. This problem is also acute in Kabardino-Balkaria, where more than 30% of agricultural and coastal lands suffer from water, anthropogenic and man-made erosion. Existing methods need to be improved and adapted to natural and local conditions. The aim of the work was to develop more efficient methods for the accelerated recovery of eroded and disturbed areas of land with the use of biopositive products and fastenings from local materials. Several technological solutions have been developed for the protection and restoration of land plots of agricultural and recreational zones located on slopes and coastal zones that have been eroded and disturbed by economic activity. All of these technical solutions are investigated and brought to the level of inventions and utility models. According to the results of the research conducted for the mountain and foothill areas of eroded lands, new methods are proposed based on the use of environmental protection technologies and restoration of damaged land. The introduction of these methods increase the effectiveness of anti-erosion measures and reduce the material costs of their implementation
129 kb

ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FUEL PELLETS BASED ON RAW WOOD

abstract 1491905018 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 33
The article presents a brief overview of the technologies for the production of wood-based pellets. The work gives disadvantages and advantages of the products manufactured using the surveyed technologies. A comparative analysis of the granules obtained by the considered technological processes is given. The conclusions are made about the economic and technological feasibility of using the presented technologies using wood waste as a raw material
122 kb

EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF A MINERAL FERTILIZER SYSTEM OF WIN-TER WHEAT GROWN ON LEACHED CHERNOZEM OF WESTERN CISCAUCASIA

abstract 1491905020 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 25
The article shows results of using a mineral fertilizer system on the conditions of the mineral nutrition of winter wheat grown on leached chernozem in 11-field grain-tilled crop rotation conditions of stationary experience. We have also shown the effect of various norms and types of fertilizers on grain yield. Grain increase as a result of using N40 and N40Р30К20 ranged from 0.54-0.50 t / ha, average and elevated rates increased the yield of winter wheat by 0.97 and 1.03 t / ha, which is higher than the control by 17.1 and 18 , 2%
153 kb

TECHNOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF VARIETIES AND HYBRIDS OF BEET-ROOT AS RAW MATERIALS FOR MANUFACTURING MASHED SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS

abstract 1491905021 issue 149 pp. 0 – 0 31.05.2019 ru 29
One of the promising ways of deep processing of beetroot is the production of sterilized mashed semi-finished product. The quality of the finished product is determined by a complex of factors, among which an important role is played by the varietal characteristics of the raw materials. Research on the technological evaluation of table beet varieties and hybrids for suitability to this method of processing was carried out in 2018 on the basis of the Department of Agriculture and Agrochemistry of the All-Russian Research Institute of of Vegetable Growing, a branch of the Federal State Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Department of Fruit and Vegetable Storage and Processing Technologies Timiryazev. In the course of the research, the following tasks were solved: analysis of the raw materials for the main biochemical quality indicators (the content of dry substances, sugars, betanin, nitrates); laboratory production of sterilized puree semi-finished product and its evaluation by chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics. Based on the biochemical parameters of raw materials, the domestic varieties of single-seeded Russkaya odnosemyannaya (21.5%), Bordovaya VNIIO (20.1%) and Karina (19.8%) were distinguished according to the content of dry substances. According to the sugar content, varieties such as Karina (11.43%), Bordovaya VNIIO (11.19%) and Bordo 237 (11.03%) were distinguished. We have established a significant superiority of domestic varieties over foreign hybrids on the content of betaninand identified characteristic changes in the chemical composition of puree semi-finished product compared with the feedstock - a decrease in the content of dry substances, sugars, nitrates, a significant destruction of betanin. The highest scores on the complex of organoleptic indicators were obtained by samples of mashed semi-finished products made from beet varieties Smuglyanka, Bordo 237, Bordovaya VNIIO and Pablo F1 hybrid. - 21.6 ... 22.9 points on a 25-point scale. They should be recommended for industrial cultivation in the areas of procuring activity of canning enterprises engaged in the production of mashed semi-finished products
113 kb

NEW SOURCE MATERIAL FOR BREEDING WINTER WHEAT IN THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION

abstract 1481904011 issue 148 pp. 0 – 0 30.04.2019 ru 23
The article describes the methods, specific researches on the analysis of source material for breeding work on winter soft wheat in the Belgorod region. The main purpose of our research was to study the economic and biological traits and properties of varieties in collective nursery and the creation of new initial material of winter wheat by the method of intraspecific hybridization for breeding in Belgorod state agricultural University. In 2016, the scheme of crossing promising lines recommended competitive trials of self-selection D9, D15, D19, variety Belgorod 16
182 kb

RESOURCE CONSERVATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPRING BARLEY

abstract 1481904012 issue 148 pp. 0 – 0 30.04.2019 ru 14
The article discusses the possibilities and presents the results of research on the cultivation of spring barley with different production technologies in conditions of insufficient and unstable wetting of the south of Russia. Experimental studies were carried out in a stationary experiment with a four-field crop rotation with different variants of tillage (dump, flat-cut, layered, without tillage – no-till). It is established that the most expensive is the waste treatment of the soil (PN-5-35), and the least expensive is the technology excluding the impact on the soil. At the same time, the operating costs of labor and fuel consumption at no-till are lower, respectively, by 82-107, 23-48, 131-188% in comparison with traditional types of technology. Hectare fuel consumption with zero technology is 131-188% less than with traditional technologies and amounted to 22.8 kg / ha. The cost of production of spring barley using no-till is 8-41% lower compared to flat-cut, layer-by-layer, and dump technology and amounts to 285 rubles per cent. Calculated per 1 hectare, labor costs, fuel consumption, wages, fuel costs, deductions for renovation and repairs, as well as total operating costs for traditional basic tillage technologies increase, respectively, 1,23-1,48; 2,31-2,88; 1,30-1,56; 3,1-3,81; 1,65-1,85; 1,81-1,96; 1,83-2,09 times compared with no-till. The use of spring barley cultivation technology that excludes impact on the soil provides a fairly high efficiency even at lower yields
438 kb

ASSESSMENT OF WEATHER CHANGES EFFECT ON PEACH CROP IN HUMID SUBTROPICS OF RUSSIA

abstract 1481904014 issue 148 pp. 0 – 0 30.04.2019 ru 16
The close dependence of peach yield on the weather factors in the humid subtropical zone has been established. The observed climate changes in recent years (2000–2018) significantly affected the production potential of peach cultivars. An increase in temperature and precipitation in February-March negatively affected morphogenesis of the flower buds, which reduces the yield of most cultivars. The significant variability of precipitation (the main constraint of peach production) in the winter and early spring, the low weather predictability, characterize the onset of flowering by the “critical” phase. Weather conditions were changed during ripening. In July and August, the amount of precipitation decreased, the temperature increased, which led to moisture deficit and fruits quality deterioration. Local climate change in humid subtropics actualizes the development of adaptive cultivars with a high ecological and adaptive plasticity. Selected clones of the Red Heaven, Krasnaya Zarya and Larisa are the most adapted to the local conditions and can be successfully used in the low mountain area of the subtropics
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