Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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348 kb

AGROBIOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF CONVEYOR PRODUCTION OF WATERMELON IN THE "IP EROKHINA E. A." COMPANY IN THE TEMRYUK DISTRICT

abstract 1381804017 issue 138 pp. 78 – 90 30.04.2018 ru 180
Watermelon has great economic importance. The fruits have high nutritional and medicinal value, excellent taste, very healthy and are in great demand among the population. Soil and climatic conditions of the Temryuk district are favourable for growing watermelon. High yield and excellent fruit quality in the commercial led to the popularity of the Temryuk watermelon not only on the black sea coast, but also throughout Russia. The urgency of improving the assortment of the watermelon is increased competition among manufacturers, increasing consumer culture of the population, the increase in sales volumes, including due to the appearance on the market of varieties and hybrids of non-traditional colors of bark and pulp. The aim of our study was to establish the most adapted hybrids of watermelon of different segments, with high yield and marketability of fruits, which are promising for growing in the Temryuk district. Scientific novelty of our work lead to the research objects – new, recently created hybrids of watermelon, promising for cultivation in the Krasnodar region. The work has great practical significance, since on the basis of these studies identified promising hybrids of watermelon foreign seeds of various segments of the precocity, which with appropriate cultivation agrobiological and economic points of view
332 kb

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS SOIL TREATMENTS AND HERBICIDE ON YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF TERRAIN-EROSIVE AGROLANDSCAPE

abstract 1381804019 issue 138 pp. 91 – 105 30.04.2018 ru 91
Plants of winter wheat suppress weeds quite well, however, the use of herbicides is required, which prevents the new clogging up of soil. Under surface tillage it was observed a greater spread of weeds than under mold-board plowing. Introduction of the herbicide Lancelot regardless of ways of tillage has reduced this rate in 5.8 times. An important means of regulating of vital functions of soil microflora is tillage. 40% of all expenses ac-counted for the soil treatment required for cultivation of crops. Therefore it is important to study the effect of tillage on the course of microbiological processes in the upper 0-30 cm layer. The intensity of the decomposition of plant material by linen cloths method objectively reflects the status and activity of soil microflora. One of the signs of cultural soil condition is its ability of nitrification. Nitrification process is particularly slow in early spring, because this time the microbiological activity is weak because of low soil temperature. When the soil is progressing the number of nitrates increases and reaches its peak in summer, after that the process is fading. Studies have shown that under surface tillage, microbiological processes of decomposition of cellulose and the ability of soil nitrification compared with moldboard plowing are higher. The components of yield structure show features of yield formation. Tillage did not have an essential effect on crop structure elements. Application of herbicide Lancelot has significantly increased the number of productive stalks (7.3-10%) and mass of 1000 grains on 1.8 g or 4.5%. Grain yield of winter wheat did not depend on the primary tillage (57.5-56.5 kg/ha). Application of herbicide Lance-lot has allowed to receive allowance (on average for 2 years) 5.0 kg/ha. Grain quality indicators of winter wheat depend both on the hereditary traits and preferred growing conditions. The amount of gluten is not dependent on the main tillage, while the introduction of herbicide has increased gluten to 1.4%. Calculation of economic and bio-energy efficiency showed that the use of surface treatment in the cultivation of winter wheat on soil ordinarily is worthwhile
363 kb

EFFICIENCY OF FERTILIZERS APPLICATION ON SUNFLOWER CROPS ON BLACK LEACHED SOILS WITH DIFFERENT SOIL FERTILITY LEVELS

abstract 1381804025 issue 138 pp. 106 – 121 30.04.2018 ru 58
In the article we present the results of perennial researches on the influence of norms of fertilizers on growth and productivity of sunflower on Chernozem (Black soil) with different levels of fertility in the Central zone of the Krasnodar region. The improvement of nutritional status of plants promoted increase in leaf area of sunflower in the flowering stage from 20.1 to 30.8 thousand m2/ ha and more accumulation of dry substances and major nutrients in plant tissues throughout the growing season. The greatest influence on the content of nitrogen and phosphorus in the leaves of 56 – 64 and 50 – 58%, in stalks of 40 – 62 and 39 – 42%, in baskets 43 – 59, and 38 -68%, respectively, provided the rate of fertilizer. The yield of sunflower seeds in average for three hybrids (Kubanskiy 341, Triumph, Legion) evolved in experiment parcels from 25.5 to 33, 4 ac./ha. The highest productivity of this crop is obtained when a high rate of fertilizer (N80Р120) is applied on soil with a high level of fertility. The increase of seed yield compared to control was 7.9 ac./ha or 30.9 %. While increasing the level of soil fertility and fertilizer amount, oil content of the seeds decreased from 46.9 to 44.5%, but the yield of oil increased from 1.20 to 1, 47 T/ha due to the growth of productivity
321 kb

SELENIUM IN BLACK LEACHED SOIL

abstract 1381804041 issue 138 pp. 160 – 170 30.04.2018 ru 83
The content of selenium in the soils of various genetic types varies widely. Its amount is lower in soils formed on volcanic rocks. On average, it is 0.2-0.6 mg/kg. In the soils formed on sedimentary rocks, the content of selenium is often in the range of 4.5-5.0 mg/kg and depending on the conditions of formation it varies widely, sometimes reaching 100 mg/kg. Predominantly they are alkaline soils, selenium concentrations in the soil solution is 10-6 moles. The content of selenium in most soil types of the Russian Federation and CIS countries varies in the range of 0.01-1.0 mg/kg. Floodplain, chestnut soils, black soils and gray soils are more enriched (0.3 to 1.0 mg/kg), whereas sod-podzolic and sandy soils are relatively depleted (0,05-0,2 mg/kg). Systematic application of mineral fertilizers on the fields of crop rotation leads to a decrease in total content in the leached black soil. Fertilizers contribute to increased mobility of this element and more intensive involvement of it in the biological cycle
348 kb

PHYTOSANITARY STATUS OF WINTER WHEAT AGROCENOSIS IN THE CONDITIONS OF LONG-TERM STATIONARY FIELD EXPERIENCE ON BLACK LEACHED SOILS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN CAUCASUS

abstract 1381804042 issue 138 pp. 171 – 184 30.04.2018 ru 70
As a result of 12-year research, we found the influence of management and control factors on the population of pests and disease damage of four varieties of winter wheat in KNIISH of P.P. Lukyanenko in order to optimize the plant protection factor. The quantitative characteristics of populations of pests and diseases essentially depend on the agronomist and weather predictors. It has been established that for 8 years the population of winter wheat by the larvae of cereal leaf beetle was higher than the EPO and the protection has been important economically and agro-politically. The maximum population of spikes of wheat thrips was observed in 2009, 2010, 2013 and 2014 and amounted to 24.2-35.3 specimens / spike, which was the basis for the use of insecticides. With optimal weather predictors in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, the population of spikes with larvae of wheat mosquito (without plant protection) was from 15.3 to 19.0 specimens / spike, which is higher than the EPO. Monitoring of the dynamics the development of diseases allowed conclusion that the state of the population of pathogens is limited by the levels of fertility and mineral nutrition and weather predictors. The isolation of the values of these indicators in different periods of development of pests allows to optimize the implementation of operational measures with the contribution of the plant protection factor to the productivity of winter wheat from 7 to 42%
289 kb

PECULIARITIES OF VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION OF PERSPECTIVE VARIETIES OF RASPBERRY BY THE METHOD OF MARKING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1371803015 issue 137 pp. 61 – 76 30.03.2018 ru 77
In conditions of field and laboratory experiments, there were learned particular properties of vegetative reproduction of raspberry varieties. During the experiment, there were used Scromnitza, Glen Ample, Miraj varieties. In field conditions, there were made phenological accounts, also there were made biochemical observations of quality markers of fruits of observed raspberry varieties, based on department of laboratory of pomology of Kuban SAU. Optimal correlation of common sugars and acids, which define fruit tastes, seen on raspberry variety Glen Ample. Maximal amount of planting stocks obtained at reproduction of root stems with a more than 5 mm diameter. Glen Ample had the biggest (in comparison with other varieties) result of output amount of daughter plants. According to commercial – attractable level, raspberry varieties arranged in increasing order: Scromnitza, Miraj, Glen Ample. During the assessment of winter hardiness (based on degree of harming generative buds by frosts), Miraj was positively underlined
167 kb

PHYTOSANITARY STATUS OF WHEAT AGROCENOUSE IN CONDITIONS OF LONG-TERM STATIONARY FIELD EXPERIENCE ON LEACHED CHERNOZEM IN THE WESTERN CISCAUCASIA

abstract 1371803016 issue 137 pp. 77 – 90 30.03.2018 ru 90
As a result of 12-year research, we define the influence of management and control factors on the population of pests and disease damage of four varieties of winter wheat KNIISH of PP Lukyanenko in order to optimize the plant protection factor. The quantitative characteristics of populations of pests and diseases essentially depend on the agronomist and weather predictors. It has been established that for 8 years the population of winter wheat by the larvae of the piano was higher than the EPO and the protection has been important economic and agro-politic. The maximum population of ears of wheat thrips was observed in 2009, 2010, 2013 and 2014 and amounted to 24.2-35.3 specimens / ear, which was the basis for the use insecticides. With optimal weather predictors in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, the population of ears of larvae of wheat mosquito (without plant protection) was from 15.3 to 19.0 specimens / ear, which is higher than the EPO. Monitoring of the dynamics the development of diseases allowed conclusion that the state of the population of pathogens is limited by the levels of fertility and mineral nutrition and weather predictors. The isolation of the values of these indicators in different periods of development of pests allows to optimize the implementation of operational measures with the contribution of the plant protection factor to the productivity of winter wheat from 7 to 42%
190 kb

CROP YIELD OF WINTER BARLEY GRAIN WITH THE APPLICATION OF VARIOUS GROWING TECHNOLOGIES

abstract 1371803021 issue 137 pp. 106 – 122 30.03.2018 ru 122
The experiment considered the influence of different methods of agricultural technologies on the yield of winter barley in the dependence of the investigated factors. The studies were carried out at the experimental station of Kuban State Agrarian University in the conditions of multifactorial long-term soil monitoring. The experiment was carried out in a typical 11-field grain-grass-tillage crop rotation with the following alternation of crops: alfalfa, alfalfa, winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, winter wheat, corn for grain, winter wheat, sunflower, winter wheat, spring barley with sowing of alfalfa. Stationary experience is represented by the following factors: the level of fertility (factor A); fertilizer system (factor B); plant protection system (factor C) and methods of basic soil cultivation (factor D). The relationship between the influence of the soil fertility level, fertilizer norms, plant protection products, the soil cultivation system and yield, and the crop structure of the perspective winter barley variety ‘Gordey’ were determined. The soil is leached super-heavy light-clay chernozem with an average thickness of the humus horizon - 150 cm. It is found that fertilizer, soil treatment, seeding method, protective means increase the yield of winter barley and positively influences the elements of the yield structure. The yield increase in comparison with the control changed from 10.4 to 26.8 c / ha. The statistical processing data show that the fertilizer system (35.8%) and soil cultivation (27%) had a certain influence on the number of productive stems; the fertilizer system (44.6%) influenced the spike size, the fertilizer system (28%) and the tillage (32.8%) had influence on the amount of grain in the spike and also influenced the mass of grain from the spike
216 kb

MANAGEMENT OF QUANTITIES AND QUALITY HARVEST OF VIORIKA GRAPE BY APPLICATION OF ZEREBRA AGRO REGULATOR OF THE GROWTH

abstract 1371803022 issue 137 pp. 123 – 142 30.03.2018 ru 65
The article is dedicated to the study of new complex growth regulator called Zerebra agro and its influence on agrobiological and technological indicators of grapes. Studies were conducted in the Anapo-Taman Wine Growing Zone of the Krasnodar region (PAO Pobeda, Temryuk District). The fruit-bearing plantations of the white variety Viorica were cultivated three times during the vegetation period: before flowering (May 27), after flowering (June 20), the growth phase of berries (July 18), berries ripening (August 13) 200 ml / ha. Application of the growth regulator Zerebra agro resulted in a significant increase in the average mass of the bunch (by 11.5%), due to an increase in the number of berries (by 12.6%), yields from the bush (by 11.8%) and yields of plantations (by 1.17 tons or %). The increase in the experimental variant of the vine harvest was not accompanied by a decrease in the sugar content of the berries juice and an increase in the titrated acidity. The use of Zerebra agro allowed to reduce the degree of death of the central buds of wintering eyes at two and a half times, also to increase the coefficients of fruiting and fruit bearing, as well as the proportion of eyelets with two inflorescences and more. The greatest decrease in the death of the central wintering buds, as well as an increase in the embryonic fruiting index, was observed in the zone of 1-5 buds, which makes it possible to apply in the experimental version a short pruning length of fruit vines and to abandon the dry garters of fruit shooters
173 kb

THE BALANCE OF HUMUS WITH LONG-TERM USE OF BLACK LEACED SOIL IN THE PLAIN AGROLANDSCAPES DEPENDING ON AGROTECHNOLOGIES OF CULTIVATION OF FIELD CROPS

abstract 1371803018 issue 137 pp. 91 – 105 30.03.2018 ru 51
In the article, following the results of the first rotation of crop rotation, we consider results of researches on influence of technologies of cultivation of crops of various degree of intensification in a link of field crop rotation on change of the content in arable layer of the black leached soil of one of the main indicators of fertility of the soil – general humus. Determination of the total humus content in the soil layer 0-20 cm under winter wheat cultivated after sugar beet, corn for grain and sunflower ranged in terms of technology options from 3.02 to 3.72 %. Application of organic fertilizers for sugar beet on the variants of the studied technologies, in order to simulate soil fertility levels, from 200 to 600 t/ha and their intermediate application to this crop with a norm of 30 to 120 t/ha contributed, regardless of the method of basic tillage, to an increase in the humus content in the soil from 3.38 to 3.65 %. In the future, as crops rotate in the link of crop rotation, within five years there was a drop in the total humus content in the arable layer according to the variants of the experiment from 0.09 to 0.21 %. Intensification of technologies, increase of crop productivity in the link of crop rotation contributed to the annual loss of humus by 0.02-0.04%. When applying the same average and high standards of organic fertilizers, humus content in the arable layer did not fall below the initial levels of soil fertility and was 3.25 – 3.44 %. This contributed to the maintenance of the total humus content, and therefore, the preservation of soil fertility compared with options where organic fertilizers were not used. It is established that at cultivation of field crops on technologies with application of the non – oval system of processing of the soil, the content of the General humus in a layer of the soil of 0-20 sm averaged 3,39 %. Application in the technologies of soil plowing reduced humus content in the soil to 3.30%, which was inferior to options with non-oval tillage by 0.09%. With the alternation in the rotation surface of the main processing of the soil under cereals and moldboard tilled under (ie recommended system primary tillage) were lost to 0.012% of humus per year, while in the technologies with annual moldboard with side effects of deep loosening tillage, dehumification was of 0.027% per year. In the process of researches it is established that the cultivation of crops in crop rotation on environmentally acceptable technologies with application of the average rate of organic fertilizers on the background recommended for the Central zone of the Krasnodar region the main processing system contributes more to the preservation of humus in the soil compared to extensive technology (control) to 0.04 % and 0.06 – 0.07 percent when using this technology on the background of moldboard and subsurface tillage treatments of the soil
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