Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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649 kb

MATRIX ORGANIZATION OF SOILS OF RICE AGROLANDSCAPES

abstract 1331709069 issue 133 pp. 905 – 923 30.11.2017 ru 104
Acidic properties of the mineral matrix of meadow chernozem and meadow-boggy soils of Krasnodar region are characterized by a total adsorption capacity of ammonia in the range of 32-61 µmol / g. The lowest acidity of the matrix was observed under conditions of permanent rice cultivation for 80 years (32- 33 µmol NH3/g). The mineral matrix of rice soils depends on the meliorative state and the granulometric composition of these soils. At low fields of meadowboggy soils, heavier in granulometric composition, the total acidity of the mineral matrix is 51- 53 µmol NH3/g on high checks of lighter meadow chernozem soils – 34-45 µmol NH3/g. In the upper soil, with a less acidic matrix, the Fe3+ content increases and the amount of Fe2+ decreases. The reverse pattern is found in the lower soil with more pronounced acidic properties of the matrix. A proportional relationship between the humus content and the acidic properties of the mineral matrix is found. The highest yield of rice is formed on meadow chernozem soils with a less acidic mineral matrix
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ACCELERATED REPROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR RECYCLING PIG MANURE INTO ORGANIC FERTILIZER

abstract 1331709080 issue 133 pp. 1094 – 1113 30.11.2017 ru 125
The article considers the accelerated reprocessing technology for recycling pig manure into organic fertilizer. Today, closely relevant is the matter of environmentally friendly technologies for cattle manure utilization. Export of wastes in its pure form to agricultural land cannot be applied, because disease causing and chemical compound penetrated the soil, entered the groundwater and contaminated many water sources. Experiments for the accelerated reprocessing of the pig manure into organic fertilizer were conducted on the basis of PCF No. 2 of the APC "Maryanskaya" in the Krasnoarmeisky district. With the aim of eliminating the filtering of pollutants in soil and groundwater, the experiment was performed in a concreted area, located within a farm. For the test, we used pig manure of animals, whose age was 2-8 months. The total weight of used manure was 40 t. The accumulation of manure was carried out in containers, containing 4 tons; the total time for the accumulation of necessary amount of manure for 2 months. Comparing the quality of compost obtained by the proposed technology recommended for industrial applications, control, we found differences in the chemical and biological properties. Overall, the conducted experiment has allowed to establish that the best option, given the speed of the flow of chemical and biological processes, demands environmental protection, is composting manure with straw, adding a biological product "Tamir" at the rate of 0.5 l/t. The Obtained results are comparable with data of previous years and indicate the possibility of reducing the quantity of a biological product from 1 to 0.5 l/t of waste without reducing the efficiency of the process of accelerated decomposition of nitrogenous organic compounds
190 kb

CROP YIELD OF WINTER BARLEY GRAIN WITH THE APPLICATION OF VARIOUS GROWING TECHNOLOGIES

abstract 1331709082 issue 133 pp. 1126 – 1143 30.11.2017 ru 97
The experiment considered the influence of different methods of agricultural technologies on the yield of winter barley in the dependence of the investigated factors. The studies were carried out at the experimental station of Kuban State Agrarian University in the conditions of multifactorial longterm soil monitoring. The experiment was carried out in a typical 11-field grain-grass-tillage crop rotation with the following alternation of crops: alfalfa, alfalfa, winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, winter wheat, corn for grain, winter wheat, sunflower, winter wheat, spring barley with sowing of alfalfa. Stationary experience is represented by the following factors: the level of fertility (factor A); fertilizer system (factor B); plant protection system (factor C) and methods of basic soil cultivation (factor D). The relationship between the influence of the soil fertility level, fertilizer norms, plant protection products, the soil cultivation system and yield, and the crop structure of the perspective winter barley variety ‘Gordey’ were determined. The soil is chernozem leached superheavy light-clay with an average thickness of the humus horizon - 150 cm. It is found that fertilizer, soil treatment, seeding method; protective means increase the yield of winter barley and positively influences the elements of the yield structure. The yield increase in comparison with the control changed from 10.4 to 26.8 c / ha. The statistical processing data show that the fertilizer system (35.8%) and soil cultivation (27%) had a certain influence on the number of productive stems; the fertilizer system (44.6%) influenced the spike size, the fertilizer system (28%) and the tillage (32.8%) had influence on the amount of grain in the spike and influenced the mass of grain from the spike
457 kb

EVALUATION OF VERTICAL MATERIAL IN SELECTION TO IMPROVE RICE PRODUCTIVITY

abstract 1331709083 issue 133 pp. 1144 – 1155 30.11.2017 ru 127
Increasing the productivity of agricultural plants, including rice, is the most important area of breeding. The creation of varieties with vertically leaved architectonics allows to have a qualitative approach not only to the process of formation of a highly productive agrocenosis, but also to solve questions of assessing the productivity of rice. To create highly productive varieties, it is necessary to develop new, more efficient methods of selection
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COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FEEDING OF DIFFERENT BREEDS CATTLE AT CLOSED JOINT STOCK COMPANY AGROCOMPLEX FIRM

abstract 1331709090 issue 133 pp. 1193 – 1208 30.11.2017 ru 119
The fattening of Holstein cattle for more than 90 % provides the beef cattle division of the firm «Agrocomplex» based in the village of Vyselki, the Krasnodar region. The share of the Aberdeen Angus breed is 6.3 % and Charolais at 0.6 %. The reason for insufficient supply with fattening complex of Charolais cattle is a high indicator of severe parturition, postpartum complications, and reduced productive longevity of cows of breeding herds of these breeds. In a "Livestock complex" bulls of breeds of Holstein, Charolais and Aberdeen Angus reach the required values of live weight for the established standards of the breeding time. Charolais have the best indicators of absolute and relative weight gain and the shortest feeding season. The profitability of cattle fattening in CJSC company "Agrocomplex" is low, but the efficiency of the industry is ensured by the presence of its own processing plants. To improve the profitability of beef production it is required to increase the proportion of specialized breeds for meat productivity; to generate the most uniform by age and live weight of the group; identify the cause of the high rate of culling of Charolais cows for postpartum complications and take action to address them
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SOIL PRODUCTIVITY OF DRAIN AGROLANDSCAPES DEPENDING ON THEIR MELIORATIVE CONDITION

abstract 1331709110 issue 133 pp. 1249 – 1261 30.11.2017 ru 221
In the soils of rice fields, eluvial gley processes develop, which are manifested in redistribution of silty particles along the profile, water-soluble humus, mobile compounds of iron and phosphorus. Most intensively, these processes are developed in meadowbog soils, confined to closed depressions of the plains plain. Meadow-black soils lying on elevated relief elements have more favorable physical, physicochemical and oxidation-reduction properties for cultivating rice and accompanying crops in crop rotation. The highest yield of rice is formed on high checks and higher at 12,4 c/ha than on low ones
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THE POTENTIAL OF BEANS AND CEREALS GRASS MIXTURE TO DEVELOP HABITAT AT DIFFERENT DEGREES OF NOURISHMENT REGIME IN THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL YAKUTIA

abstract 1321708008 issue 132 pp. 81 – 92 31.10.2017 ru 128
In this article, we present the results of the experiments on the potential of productivity and accumulation of the root mass of the Alfalfa and Brome-grass, on the content of the main nourishment elements and the consolidation of gross energy in the roots and agroenergetical effect of the collected gross energy in the conditions of permafrost turf soil of the Middle Lena valley. The maximum productivity potential of beans and cereals grass mixture was reached on the basis of the organic mineral nourishment regime: the collected exchange energy – 21,3 GJ, feed units – 1568 and collected raw proteins – 428 kg per ha. Thus, the content of digestible protein in beans and cereals grass mixture agrophytocenoenosis was increased from 118 to 124 g, that exceeded a zootechnic norm (105 g). In general the nitrogen contained in the total root mass of beans and cereals grass mixture agrophytocenoenosis was up to 26,6 centner per hectare and movable phosphorus- up to 33,6 kg per hectare that can serve as the source of nourishment for sown herbs. The maximal stock of gross energy in roots was got in beans and cereals grass mixture agrophytocenoenosis at organic-mineral degrees (humus of 40 centner per hectare once in 4 years + of N120PK60 annually) up to 157,1 GJ/ha, while the accumulation of the root mass reached 140,3 centner per hectare at average annual rates of accumulation of dry substance up to 24,5 centner per hectare. The processes of formation, decomposition and death of roots in the beans and cereals grass mixture agrophytocenosis take place almost in a balance state. Wherein the biological factor, as the inclusion of the Yakut yellow variety of the Alfalfa in the grass stand, plays a positive role
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INFLUENCE OF THE MELIORATIVE CONDITION ON THE PROPERTIES OF SOILS OF DRAIN AGROLANDSCAPES OF KUBAN AND THEIR PRODUCTIVITY

abstract 1321708017 issue 132 pp. 218 – 230 31.10.2017 ru 133
In the soils of rice fields, eluvial gley processes develop, which are manifested in redistribution of silty particles along the profile, water-soluble humus, mobile compounds of iron and phosphorus. Most intensively, these processes are developed in meadowbog soils, confined to closed depressions of the plains plain. Meadow-black soils lying on elevated relief elements have more favorable physical, physicochemical and oxidation-reduction properties for cultivating rice and accompanying crops in crop rotation. The highest yield of rice is formed on high checks and higher at 12,4 c/ha than on low ones
206 kb

INFLUENCE OF ENRICHMENT SEEDS WITH COPPER ON RICE YIELD

abstract 1321708023 issue 132 pp. 288 – 305 31.10.2017 ru 144
We have studied the effect of presowing enrichment with copper on the seed yield of rice. We have found optimum concentration of water solution of copper, which provides higher yields of seeds and evaluated the impact of the enrichment with copper on the growth processes in the plants of rice. The studies were conducted in elite seed-growing enterprise "Krasnoe" of All-Russian Research Institute of rice. It was found that for rice-growing farms of the Kuban region with the aim of increasing the quantity and quality of grain yield it is necessary to make sowing of rice seeds enriched with copper. This application should be carried out by wetting the rice seeds with 0,5 % water solution of the microelement with a semi-dry method, i.e. the rate of 10 liter working solution of copper in 1 ton of seed. The article proves the economic feasibility of enrichment of rice seeds with copper
121 kb

ANTIDOTE ACTIVITY OF 2- ALKYLTHIONICOTINITRILE DERIVATIVES

abstract 1321708034 issue 132 pp. 435 – 441 31.10.2017 ru 173
To develop the novel herbicide antidotes for the sunflower vegetative plants, the group of chemical compounds, belonging to the derivatives of 2- alkylthionicotinonitrile was synthesized and their antidote activity both in the laboratory and field experiments was studied. The compounds with a high antidote effect were found
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