Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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141 kb

THE INCREASE IN THE EROSION RESISTANCE OF SOILS IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES OF THE BRYANSK REGION USING PHYTOMELIORATIVE ACTIVITIES

abstract 1151601011 issue 115 pp. 173 – 182 27.01.2016 ru 520
This article summarizes results of the research on the assessment of soil erosion effectiveness of crops and the rationale of the practical application of phytomeliorative actions aimed at improving the erosion resistance of slope lands. We have obtained values of the resistance of soils to erosion under agricultural crops and in terms of pure steam and calculated the indicator of the efficiency of soil conservation crops. The tests allowed differentiating the crops on well, poorly and very poorly in protecting forest soils from erosion
159 kb

SELECTION OF NEW SELF-POLLINATED CORN LINES FOR BREEDING OF EARLY MATURING HYBRIDS

abstract 1151601024 issue 115 pp. 379 – 390 27.01.2016 ru 556
The article covers the stages of evaluation and selection of new self-pollinated corn lines. The results of testing of new lines and test crosses were reflected. Comparative analysis of yield of the best test crosses was presented. General and specific combining ability of new lines was calculated. The opportunities of further usage of new lines in breeding programs and early maturing hybrids including these lines are considering. The researches were conducted on the field of the institution, following the course of scientific researches of department of selection and seed management of corn, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Organization Krasnodar Lukyanenko Research Institution of Agriculture
177 kb

GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF WINTER BARLEY IN THE CENTRAL ZONE OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1151601037 issue 115 pp. 594 – 612 27.01.2016 ru 608
The article deals with a combination of different methods of cultivation of winter barley on the background of plowing, and their impact on growth, development and crop yield. The main technological factors allowing implementing the biological potential of culture are adaptive variety, quality seeds, predecessors, sowing and harvesting, fertilizer, soil fertility, crop care, including protection from weeds, pests and diseases. Barley is the culture of versatile use, which is grown for food and feed purposes. Intensification of cultivation methods of this phenomenon is essential and significantly affects the grain yield of this crop. Under the natural fertility of the soil and favorable weather conditions for black earth of Kuban it is possible to get 3,0-3,5 tons per hectare of winter crops of grain, and this requires the creation of an optimal diet, because one of the main factors affecting the productivity of field crops, including one phenomenon are fertilizers. In addition, the level of soil fertility and protection system of weeds, pests and diseases has great importance. Since these types of issues are relevant for agriculture, we have carried out studies to identify the optimal combination of different methods on growth, development and productivity of a single phenomenon
178 kb

PHYTO-SANITARY CONDITION OF CROPS OF WINTER BARLEY WHEN GROWING USING DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES

abstract 1151601038 issue 115 pp. 613 – 631 27.01.2016 ru 544
The article presents the biennial data on infestation of winter barley infected with his disease and pests, depending on fertilizer rates, the main method of tillage and plant protection. Weeds are one of the most highly potent factors that reduce the productivity of plants. System of agronomic plant cannot increase the productivity of plants, if it contributes to impurity of crops. In the studied years, the most common weeds at the recommended tillage were dead nettle, cleavers, chickweed, field bindweed. At zero processing - foxtail, poppy, wild oats, Leptospermum, dead nettle, veronica. The use of biological and chemical plant protection products reduced the degree of expansion and development of disease
158 kb

CONTEMPORARY TRENDS OF FORMATION AND USING OF MATERIAL STOCKS AND EXPENSES IN BRANCH OF CROP RESEARCH

abstract 1151601039 issue 115 pp. 632 – 642 27.01.2016 ru 649
The most important component of current assets of the agricultural organizations are material stocks. The optimum quantity of them is necessary for production process. The special aspects of formation and using of material stocks in crop research on micro- and meso-levels are considered in the article. It is established that the stok of fertilizers, crop-protection agents, seeds and planting material are exposed to considerable amplitudes of fluctuations during the different periods of year. The natural and biological cycle of development of plants needs of concentration of material stocks at the beginning of a production cycle that causes the necessity of attraction of the credits and commercial loans. The author studied material inputs structure in branch of crop research in Krasnodar region and its change in dynamics. The leading role of mineral fertilizers in formation of cumulative material inputs is revealed and the level of its production in the region is analysed. The researching character of the article is confirmed by the calculations and the analysis of legislative documents regarding recovery and increasing of soil fertility in Kuban region. The author emphasizes need of strengthening of the state intervention in price control in the market of mineral fertilizers, formations of sales system, aimed at minimization of dealers number in a chain "production – processing – consumption"
297 kb

IMPLEMENTATION OF POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY OF THE OLD VARIETIES OF WINTER WHEAT

abstract 1151601051 issue 115 pp. 829 – 848 27.01.2016 ru 529
In the article, we discuss issues of morphological and physiological control over plants of winter wheat. As the object of the research, we have selected landraces - the population of winter wheat, which was grown on the territory of the Kuban region in the last century. The aim of this work was determination of the effect on the reproductive system of winter wheat varieties of factors such as conditions of cultivation and processing "Cecece 750" 1.5 l/ha D. V. crop retardant. To achieve this goal we have conducted a morphological analysis of the growth cone at the VI stage of organogenesis, which provide quantitative evaluation of potential future seed production of spike of winter wheat. To study the effect of the year of breeding on the reproductive system of winter wheat varieties the analysis of variance was calculated according to the scheme 3×7 factorial variability characteristic due to the influence of genotype (factor B), cultivation year (factor A), that is repeated in time is interpreted as the effect of the year conditions of cultivation. The influence of retardant on the reproductive system of winter wheat varieties was conducted using the analysis of variance on the above described scheme, 2×7, where the factor "A" is presented in two gradations (options, retardant treated and not treated), in this case, repeated for years was excluded as a factor. The result of researches indicates that the rate of realized productivity is variety-specific and can serve as a measure of the flexibility of the studied cultivars to different environmental conditions. The analysis of variance showed significant retardant effect on the realization of potential productivity in all variants of the crops of soft winter wheat. The comparison of the average general population indicates that the genetic potential of tall varieties may not manifest even in favorable for crop cultivation. The artificial reduction of plant height by inhibiting the growth of retardant is an effective way to identify high productivity of these genotypes as varieties of winter and Nemenchinskaya Old No. 346
185 kb

IMPROVEMENT OF SEED CROPS IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

abstract 1151601056 issue 115 pp. 894 – 907 27.01.2016 ru 721
The main detected problems in selection system and seed industry consist of depreciation of laboratory equipment and specialized technique; the lack of funds and low incentives for creators of sorts; decreasing of volumes of elite and original seeds production in the Krasnodar region; common use of low reproduction seeds in production of grain. The existing stairs of seed multiplication system are examined, as well as their organizational and legal status. Directions of improvement of system of state support in this field are defined on the basis of presenting subsidies and preferences on purchasing of import of highly specialized equipment, provided that there are no domestic equivalent; correction of requirements in order of receipt of support for development of elite and original seed industry. The necessity of creation of united seed selection center of seed industry in the Krasnodar region on the basis of a specialized research Institute (KNISH of Lukyanenko). Though, as the result of providing by center of consistent recommendations on peculiarities of cultivation of sorts and their adaptive placement, maintenance of contractual relations based on principals of franchising, evaluation of sort and sowing index of quality of seed lots and hybrids, will allow to speed up the development of domestic seed industry, increase the quality of corn farming in region
259 kb

ACTUAL PROBLEMS IN ORGANIZATION OF FEEDING IN MODERN CONDITIONS

abstract 1151601060 issue 115 pp. 951 – 980 27.01.2016 ru 886
Modern pig farming is a leading global livestock industry, but the organization of adequate balanced feeding is actual for the industry. Digestibility of metabolizable energy of feed depends on various factors, including the content of non-starch polysaccharides, which have a negative effect on the digestibility of key nutrients of the feed, lead to a decrease in growth rate and conversion efficiency of nutrients. Enzyme preparations which composition generally includes Xylanase, cellulase, β-glucanase activities, may avoid the negative impact of non-starch polysaccharides. Today's promising preparation that combines the functions of two feed additives - feed enzyme and probiotic, is an enzyme preparation Cellobacterin that, due to the particular organization of the enzyme complex, increases the digestibility of barley grain and effectively effects on sunflower meal. As a probiotic preparation it inhibits the development of pathogenic microorganisms and promotes the formation of beneficial microflora in the digestive tract. The introduction of Cellobacterin enzyme preparation into the compound feed with a high content of barley grain and sunflower meal increases the body weight of young pigs by 4.8% and reduces the cost of feed per 1 kg of live weight gain. The results of hematological studies found no significant deviations from the physiological norm in the morphological picture of the blood in experimental animals. The group, where Cellobacterin was added, showed higher vitamin A content by 2.8% as compared to the control, while vitamin E is found in both groups on the same level. Based on the results of the research to improve the productivity and growth rate in compound feed based on barley and sunflower meal with higher fiber content, it is recommended to include in the compound feed Cellobacterin enzyme preparation at the rate of 1 kg per 1 ton of feed
723 kb

IMPACT OF GROWTH REGULATORS WHICH WERE NOT USED EARLIER IN CLONAL MICROPROPAGACTION ON MICROSHOOTS OF PLUM IN VITRO

abstract 1151601065 issue 115 pp. 1038 – 1045 27.01.2016 ru 840
The article presents results of the assessment of the efficiency of non-hormonal preparations which were not earlier applied in culture in vitro with high physiological activity (the preparations received by production of furfural, and also derivatives and compositions of organic acids) during regenerations of microshoots of plum, comparison of their influence with influence of growth regulators which are traditionally used in clonal micropropagation. These experimental preparations were received when processing waste of agricultural production. In this work we used: technology of clonal micropropagation of plants of in vitro, statistical data processing by method of the dispersive analysis. The objects of researches were microshoots of plum of a Stanley variety. We have established that on mediums with the preparations "Universal", sodium succinate, potassium succinate, amber acid, L-1 the large, intensively colored plum microshoots develop surpassing control (medium with BAP of 1 mg/l, IBA of 0,1 mg/l, gibberellic acid of 0,5 mg/l) in morphometric parameters. Thus, the preparations "Universal", sodium succinate, potassium succinate, amber acid, L-1 in concentration of 4,0 mg/l proved as the growth factors which are favorably influencing on plantlets’ regeneration and a qualitative condition of microshoots of plum
1304 kb

ABOUT THE APPEARANCE OF RESISTANCE TO POWDERY OIDIUM IN F1-POPULATIONS OF CRIMEAN INDIGENOUS GRAPE VARIETIES

abstract 1151601067 issue 115 pp. 1058 – 1073 27.01.2016 ru 837
Peculiarities of breeding oidium-resistant genotypes in crossing Crimea autochthonous grape varieties with complex interspecific hybrids were studied. Twentytwo populations consisting of 1323 seedlings were analyzed over a period of 2008-2014. The highest oidium resistance was registered in the progeny of the cross Khersonesskii х ЖС 26-205 (6.8 points), and the average estimate of oidium resistance across all the study populations was higher than that of the initial autochthonous grapes of the Crimea. The level of hypothetical heterosis in the majority of the study populations indicates that, on the whole, the hybrid seedlings possess a higher oidium resistance relative to the initial Crimea autochthonous grapes. The highest breeding value was associated with cross combinations having the complex interspecific hybrids Muscat JIM, Spartanets Magaracha and Magarach 31-77-10 in their pedigrees. The cross combination Muscat JIM х Shabash was the most efficient, yielding 10.7 per cent of oidium-resistant seedlings. It was reliably established that a high level of the genotypically determined inheritance of oidium resistance is found in crosses with the participation of the interspecific forms Magarach № 31-77-10 and Muscat JIM (female parents) and Spartanets Magaracha and Tsitronnyi Magaracha (male parents). The expediency of this direction of breeding research was proved
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