Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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199 kb

ACCELERATED REPROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR RECYCLING PIG MANURE INTO ORGANIC FERTILIZER

abstract 1331709080 issue 133 pp. 1094 – 1113 30.11.2017 ru 328
The article considers the accelerated reprocessing technology for recycling pig manure into organic fertilizer. Today, closely relevant is the matter of environmentally friendly technologies for cattle manure utilization. Export of wastes in its pure form to agricultural land cannot be applied, because disease causing and chemical compound penetrated the soil, entered the groundwater and contaminated many water sources. Experiments for the accelerated reprocessing of the pig manure into organic fertilizer were conducted on the basis of PCF No. 2 of the APC "Maryanskaya" in the Krasnoarmeisky district. With the aim of eliminating the filtering of pollutants in soil and groundwater, the experiment was performed in a concreted area, located within a farm. For the test, we used pig manure of animals, whose age was 2-8 months. The total weight of used manure was 40 t. The accumulation of manure was carried out in containers, containing 4 tons; the total time for the accumulation of necessary amount of manure for 2 months. Comparing the quality of compost obtained by the proposed technology recommended for industrial applications, control, we found differences in the chemical and biological properties. Overall, the conducted experiment has allowed to establish that the best option, given the speed of the flow of chemical and biological processes, demands environmental protection, is composting manure with straw, adding a biological product "Tamir" at the rate of 0.5 l/t. The Obtained results are comparable with data of previous years and indicate the possibility of reducing the quantity of a biological product from 1 to 0.5 l/t of waste without reducing the efficiency of the process of accelerated decomposition of nitrogenous organic compounds
190 kb

CROP YIELD OF WINTER BARLEY GRAIN WITH THE APPLICATION OF VARIOUS GROWING TECHNOLOGIES

abstract 1331709082 issue 133 pp. 1126 – 1143 30.11.2017 ru 267
The experiment considered the influence of different methods of agricultural technologies on the yield of winter barley in the dependence of the investigated factors. The studies were carried out at the experimental station of Kuban State Agrarian University in the conditions of multifactorial longterm soil monitoring. The experiment was carried out in a typical 11-field grain-grass-tillage crop rotation with the following alternation of crops: alfalfa, alfalfa, winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, winter wheat, corn for grain, winter wheat, sunflower, winter wheat, spring barley with sowing of alfalfa. Stationary experience is represented by the following factors: the level of fertility (factor A); fertilizer system (factor B); plant protection system (factor C) and methods of basic soil cultivation (factor D). The relationship between the influence of the soil fertility level, fertilizer norms, plant protection products, the soil cultivation system and yield, and the crop structure of the perspective winter barley variety ‘Gordey’ were determined. The soil is chernozem leached superheavy light-clay with an average thickness of the humus horizon - 150 cm. It is found that fertilizer, soil treatment, seeding method; protective means increase the yield of winter barley and positively influences the elements of the yield structure. The yield increase in comparison with the control changed from 10.4 to 26.8 c / ha. The statistical processing data show that the fertilizer system (35.8%) and soil cultivation (27%) had a certain influence on the number of productive stems; the fertilizer system (44.6%) influenced the spike size, the fertilizer system (28%) and the tillage (32.8%) had influence on the amount of grain in the spike and influenced the mass of grain from the spike
457 kb

EVALUATION OF VERTICAL MATERIAL IN SELECTION TO IMPROVE RICE PRODUCTIVITY

abstract 1331709083 issue 133 pp. 1144 – 1155 30.11.2017 ru 272
Increasing the productivity of agricultural plants, including rice, is the most important area of breeding. The creation of varieties with vertically leaved architectonics allows to have a qualitative approach not only to the process of formation of a highly productive agrocenosis, but also to solve questions of assessing the productivity of rice. To create highly productive varieties, it is necessary to develop new, more efficient methods of selection
216 kb

COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FEEDING OF DIFFERENT BREEDS CATTLE AT CLOSED JOINT STOCK COMPANY AGROCOMPLEX FIRM

abstract 1331709090 issue 133 pp. 1193 – 1208 30.11.2017 ru 343
The fattening of Holstein cattle for more than 90 % provides the beef cattle division of the firm «Agrocomplex» based in the village of Vyselki, the Krasnodar region. The share of the Aberdeen Angus breed is 6.3 % and Charolais at 0.6 %. The reason for insufficient supply with fattening complex of Charolais cattle is a high indicator of severe parturition, postpartum complications, and reduced productive longevity of cows of breeding herds of these breeds. In a "Livestock complex" bulls of breeds of Holstein, Charolais and Aberdeen Angus reach the required values of live weight for the established standards of the breeding time. Charolais have the best indicators of absolute and relative weight gain and the shortest feeding season. The profitability of cattle fattening in CJSC company "Agrocomplex" is low, but the efficiency of the industry is ensured by the presence of its own processing plants. To improve the profitability of beef production it is required to increase the proportion of specialized breeds for meat productivity; to generate the most uniform by age and live weight of the group; identify the cause of the high rate of culling of Charolais cows for postpartum complications and take action to address them
169 kb

SOIL PRODUCTIVITY OF DRAIN AGROLANDSCAPES DEPENDING ON THEIR MELIORATIVE CONDITION

abstract 1331709110 issue 133 pp. 1249 – 1261 30.11.2017 ru 463
In the soils of rice fields, eluvial gley processes develop, which are manifested in redistribution of silty particles along the profile, water-soluble humus, mobile compounds of iron and phosphorus. Most intensively, these processes are developed in meadowbog soils, confined to closed depressions of the plains plain. Meadow-black soils lying on elevated relief elements have more favorable physical, physicochemical and oxidation-reduction properties for cultivating rice and accompanying crops in crop rotation. The highest yield of rice is formed on high checks and higher at 12,4 c/ha than on low ones
157 kb

INFLUENCE OF TILLAGE AND CHEMICAL WAY TO CONTROL WEEDS ON WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE PLAIN-EROSIVE AGROLANDSCAPE

abstract 1341710002 issue 134 pp. 14 – 26 29.12.2017 ru 649
This article discusses the results of the study to determine the impact of different primary tillage and herbicide against weeds in winter wheat agrocenosis. The task of the research was to determine the impact of primary tillage (moldboard plowing and surface treatment) factor A and herbicide (Lancelot) factor B on the agro-physical and agrochemical soil properties. It has been established that the content of productive moisture during the growing period of winter wheat in 0-100 cm of soil layer didn’t depend on the method of tillage. Introduction of herbicide Lancelot boosted the moisture reserves in soil compared to the control type, in the herbicide-free type the weeds absorb the large amounts of moisture. Surface soil treatment did not have negative effects on soil agro-physical properties and its structure in comparison with moldboard plowing. Number of agronomically valuable aggregates on moldboard plowing is 85.2 - 87.5%, on surface one is - 86.2 87.5%. Density of composition and waterproof aggregates under surface treatment didn’t defer to tillage. Accumulation of wet and dry mass by weeds regardless to the way of soil tillage declined to a minimum when introducing the herbicide Lancelot. The high yield of winter wheat was obtained on this type. Mathematical processing results have shown that due to factor A (main soil tillage) to moldboard plowing the average productivity is 57.5 kg/ha, on surface one is 56.0 kg/ha, i.e. the difference between treatments is 1.5 t/ha (with NSR05 on factor - 2.9 t/ha) is insignificant. To factor B (herbicides) on control the productivity is 54.5 kg/ha, introduction of Lancelot increased the productivity to 59.5 t/ha, i.e. the increase was 5.5 kg/ha at NSR05-by the factor B-2.9 t/ha, i.e. is significant. Thus, the present soil treatments had no effect on yield of winter wheat in ordinary black soil. The use of herbicide Lancelot has produced the harvest increase in 0.5 t/ha on average for 2 years
861 kb

PECULIARITIES OF USING OF PLANT RESIDUES FOR OBTAINING COMPOSTS

abstract 1341710003 issue 134 pp. 27 – 38 29.12.2017 ru 968
Using of organomineral composts to preserve fertility and restore ecological functions of chernozem soils in the Krasnodar territory is necessary. Their composition depends on the properties of chernozem soils and can include various wastes of industry and agriculture. The main component of compost can be organic wastes of livestock, and plant residues and mineral additives are additional compost components. Peculiarities of the interaction of the components of the organomineralic mixture, which including manure of cattle and phosphogypsum, are considered in the work. In the interaction of organic particles of cattle manure and phosphogypsum particles, structural formations are formed where the phosphogypsum particles are enveloped by particles of cattle manure. The experience of composting this organomineral mixture with various crop residues of crops was carried out. Plant residues according to the intensity of decomposition in composts can be represented in the next row, beginning with more decomposed ones: sugar beet> winter wheat> winter barley> corn> sunflower. The composts obtained were characterized by a well-aggregated structure with a predominance of particles 1-2 mm in diameter, good aeration, low density (1.01-1.10 g / cm3), and favorable humidity (22-25%). The structural factor of composts with different plant residues ranged from 3.1 to 4.3 units. The best physical properties were compost, including plant residues of sugar beet, the worst - sunflower. The combination of an organomineral mixture with various plant residues contributed to a decrease in alkalinity of the substrate, a slowing of the mineralization of organic matter, restraint of ammonification processes, and an increase in the content of total nitrogen and phosphorus
141 kb

FEEDING CONCENTRATES AND PREMIXES FOR CATTLES

abstract 1341710011 issue 134 pp. 134 – 145 29.12.2017 ru 876
The article gives an overview of the current developments of scientists of the Russian Federation in the field of production of feed concentrates and premixes for cattle. A critical analysis of feed concentrates and premixes of preventive and compensatory action for the control of mycotoxicoses was carried out, and their brief characteristics were given. The characteristic of biologically active substances and fillers, declared in the recipes of feed concentrates and premixes, is given. It is shown that the alternative to existing feed concentrates and premixes on the market is vitamin-mineral fodder concentrate "Tetra +", developed by the authors. Based on the analysis, a conclusion was made about the relevance of studies to identify the effectiveness of vitamin-mineral fodder concentrate "Tetra +" in livestock
220 kb

PHENOTYPING OF HIGH-QUALITY TECHNICAL GRAPES OF AZOSVIV SELECTION IN THE AMPELOGRAPHIC COLLECTION

abstract 1341710019 issue 134 pp. 230 – 240 29.12.2017 ru 360
A variety determines the direction of use of grape products and plays a leading role in improving its quality. Preservation of genetic resources of grapes and their studying are very important for modern science. The studied material makes it possible to use the selected genetic characteristics for breeding new varieties of grapes, taking into account the requirements, and introducing them into production, as well as highlighting the most valuable varieties for transferring them to the state variety testing. Among a wide variety of grape varieties, in the ampelographic collection there are varieties of AZOSVIV selection of the technical direction: Krasnostop AZOS and Dostoiniy, for which complete phenotyping was carried out. The phenological and agrobiological information on the grape varieties studied for 2015- 2017 is collected. The presented grades of grapes of the technical direction are characterized by high quality of production. The wines from the varieties Krasnostop AZOS and Dostoiniy are competitive, characterized with high consumer properties; they enjoy the well-deserved fame and were nominees of exhibitions and holders of diplomas repeatedly. Based on the results of microsatellite profiling, the varieties showed a sort-specific general combination of alleles. At the same time, in each locus there is one identical allele, which corresponds to the fact that the varieties Krasnostop AZOS and Dostoiniy have one common parent (Phylloxer-resistant Gemete). The received formulas of a variety (DNA-passports) in practice can be effectively applied to determine the cleanliness of planting stock and plantations of grapes, specification of the parent forms of the sample and in the disputed questions of the authorship of the variety. The study was supported by Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations program for support the bioresource collections
191 kb

COMPARATIVE ENERGY CHARACTERISTIC OF FUNCTIONING OF PERSONAL SUBSIDIARY FARMS: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE METHODICAL APPROACH

abstract 1341710020 issue 134 pp. 241 – 251 29.12.2017 ru 345
Currently, personal subsidiary farms (PSF) have an important place in solving of the food security problem in some regions and the country as a whole. The organization of optimal and sustainable management strategy of maintenance for PSF should be planned according to the study of functioning of PSF. The authors propose a unified methodical approach for complex accounting of energy costs of external and internal flows involved in the production of agricultural products. Comparative energy characteristic of the functioning of the two personal subsidiary farms located in the Tomsk oblast and having different socio-economic and climatic conditions is presented in the article. Both farms are located in the taiga zone of Western Siberia. Calculations of the energy content of all the incoming and outgoing flows involved in the economic activities of PSF showed that the flow of technogenicanthropogenic energy is the most energy-intensive for both farms. Some conformity in the energy structure of consumption of their own product takes place despite the different types of stockbreeding specialization. An assessment of the level of selfsufficiency in food has shown that more favourable socio-economic conditions create preconditions for an increase of the anthropogenic flow. While PSF located in remote areas are forced to conduct of business activities with maximum using of natural resource potential
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