Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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abstract 1171603026 issue 117 pp. 420 – 430 31.03.2016 ru 587
The article gives a brief summary on the results of the introduction of rose varieties of climbing type in the central sub-zone of the Krasnodar region. Starting from the year 2000 in our institute a collection of roses from different garden groups, which includes 164 varieties, has been formed. Presently the rose varieties with long stems (from 2.5 m or more) are popular among specialists of landscape industry and floristlovers. Therefore we carry on introductions and study rose varieties of the groups of Rambler and LargeFlowered Climber. Rose varieties with valuable decorative signs, with enhanceable resistance to cold and drought-resistingness are selected. The valuable varieties and sources of the indicated signs are identified. Varieties of Albertine, American Pillar, Devichiy grezy are the sources of bright flower color; Bobbie James, Dorothy Perkins, Duc de Constantine - sources of long (more than 4 meters) of flexible shoots Warthburg - the source of early flowering. Variety New Daun - one of the few varieties of Rambler, which is characterized by re-bloom throughout the growing season in the conditions of the Krasnodar region. The indicative collection of several rose varieties includes the group of Large-Flowered Climber. A variety called Adzhimushkay is a source of large fragrant flowers of bright and early flowering. For the variety of Crimskiy Motive we noted the presence of a valuable feature - long flowering during the dry season (July-August). Flammentanz was included into the collection as one of the most winter resistant varieties of large-flowered. Promising varieties of the series of Super Rambler in the conditions of Krasnodar in the dry season formed short shoots, and flowers were not formed. Rose varieties included into the collection can be considered indicative of "anchor" genotypes, which are valuable for involvement into the selection process
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abstract 1171603030 issue 117 pp. 490 – 499 31.03.2016 ru 339
The article has considered the influence of modern climate changes on the intensity of erosion processes within the boundaries of the basic landscapes of the region. It has given the results of the spatial distribution of the rainfalls. The most noticeable climate changes of the Bryansk region are reflected in the decrease in the activity of erosion during snowmelt due to the lower amounts of snow and soil frost depth. In the area, the dynamics of rainfall does not detect a single trend. The processes of erosion and deflation are studied in the relationship, the manifestation of these processes on the territory of the Bryansk region. It has published the results of the risk analysis of erosion and deflation on forest soils of the region and justified the application of G. V. Bastrakov’s method for modeling erosion-resistant agricultural landscapes. This approach has a number of advantages over the other known methods. In our case, regardless of soil and climatic and geomorphological conditions, the challenge is to ensure such events in which erosion resistance of the land will not be below a critical value. The research results are the initial data in designing soil conservation activities on the territory of the Bryansk region. The obtained data of the erosive properties of soils from climatic changes enable the study and forecasting of the development of agricultural landscapes of the region in the medium term
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abstract 1171603036 issue 117 pp. 584 – 599 31.03.2016 ru 562
During 2012-2015 from the two fissile populations of rice hybrid Il.14 x Kuboyar and Il.28 x Kuboya we conducted multidirectional selection of panicles with low, medium and high number of grains in them. It was established a different reaction to the selection of hybrid generations by yield. The lowest yield was formed at planting grain from small panicles, intermediate - from the middle panicles and biggest - from the major panicles. The reaction to selection decreased with each successive generation. In the hybrid Il.14 x Kuboyar at positive selection of the yield increase towards the initial population F2 was in F3 - 10,5%, in the F4 - 3,8% and F5 - 1,9%, at Il.28 x Kuboyar - respectively 4, 4%, 3.1% and 0.7%. At negative selection in Il.14 x Kuboyar there was a decrease of yield on 7.7% F3, in F4 on 6.9% and in F5 on 0.2%. By years of research was not observed variations in grain yield obtained from the panicle with an average grainness and generally was at the level of the original population. At the hybrid Il.28 x Kuboyar for negative selection of the relative yield initially decreased on 1.7% in F3, while then for all kinds of selection to the fifth generation grew up and different to a lesser extent than the first the hybrid, although the ranks of the values preserved. The yield from a fraction of well-grained was 98.4%, medium grained - 96.5%, low grained - 94.2% of the initial Kuboyar variety
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abstract 1171603044 issue 117 pp. 684 – 697 31.03.2016 ru 621
The article highlights the issues of grape plants resistance to low temperatures; it is an urgent problem for all wine-growing regions of the world, located in the zone of risky agriculture. Losses caused by frost, indicate long-standing necessity of perfection of assortment in terms of enhancing its hardiness by enriching more resistant genotypes obtained both through the introduction or naturalization, as well as from the crossing of indigenous with interspecies hybrids. Methodology for evaluating frost resistance properties of the material served as a preparation for the originality of his research and experimental evaluation of the unique divisibility properties of the aim. Thus, we initially conducted hardening of matured cuttings at positive temperature plus 8 plus 4 ° C for 14 days (I quenching phase) and a negative temperature minus 5 ° C-minus 7 ° C for 9 days and minus 10 ° C-1 day (II hardening phase). Then the cuttings we frozen in the temperature range from minus 16 ° C to the next steps of consistent freezing (minus 16 ° C - 2 days; minus 18 ° C - 2 days; minus 20 ° C - 2 days; minus 22 ° C – 1day, minus 24 ° C - 1 day, minus 26 ° C - 1 day, minus 28 ° C - 1 day and minus 30 ° C - 8 hours). After freezing of cuttings of each variety, the sample was placed on the 3 days in the refrigerator at the temperature of + 2 ° C to their gradual thawing. Cuttings were grown at room temperature on water. As a result, obtained by the accounting: the lowest frost-resistance among the studied forms of parental Crimean origins was found in grades of Shabash, Soldayya and Solnechnodolinsky; the varieties of Dzevat kara, Kokur bely, Kokur cherny, Misket, Misgyuli kara, Sari Pandas were set as a weak level (-20 °C); Aybatly, Kefesiya, Kok pandas and Ekim kara have average level up to -22 °C; the highest frost-resistance - 24 °C – was shown by Khersonessky and Kapselsky. Also, we have identified synthetic frost-resistant F1-population and plus-transgressive selection form
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abstract 1171603046 issue 117 pp. 708 – 725 31.03.2016 ru 427
High growth-rate of plantlet is the integral index of intensity of physiological processes at rice and other cultures. 20 typical plantlets from each of two variants were studded (in the distilled water in thermostat at a temperature 29° C) by: length of embryonic root and coleoptile. Comparative analysis of trait characterizing the growth rates of rice varieties showed reliable advantage of Russian ones above the Italian and Chinese. Local varieties, regionalized until the year 2000, exceed new ones on this trait. Highest growth rates were characterized by medium grain samples. The white grain and red grain varieties are excelled other groups on the height of plantlet. Analysis rates of height of plantlets in the distinguished groups showed the necessity of prosecution of improvement of the above enumerated signs at the varieties of late term of ripening, long grain, with Waxy gene, colored grain. We recommend to sow this type of varieties on fields with good leveling, because of low speed of growth
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abstract 1171603051 issue 117 pp. 786 – 795 31.03.2016 ru 410
Productivity of seeds of cereal crops essentially depends on the quality of the seed grain, which is being defined both by biological condition of seeds and technologies and technical resources, which are being used in, machine processing of seed heap. In this connection, different injuries of weevils which are occurred while mechanical and thermomechanical influences from tools of machines and aggregates have got vital importance. Apart from the breaches of integrity of the weevil’s cover there are also exist traumatizing changes of its inside structures which are frequently covered with casings and do not being viewed with visual inspection. Conditions of inside structures of weevils were researched with radiographic method and also were defined possible types of traumatizing changes which depend on mechanical and thermomechanical influences, which were eliminated in universal classification of injures among the inside structures of seeds of agricultural cultures. Also, wу have analyzed the influence of chosen types of injuries on seeds’ sowing qualities and found that all injures of weevils essentially and differentially influenced the sowing and fruitful qualities and should be considered while choosing the technological schemes of preparation, working tools and while tuning the aggregates’ regime of work attached to the machine processing of grain and seed heap
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abstract 1171603083 issue 117 pp. 1288 – 1302 31.03.2016 ru 659
This article presents the experimental material obtained from long-term stationary experiment of GNU "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" in P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. Stationary experience was founded in 1978. It had two ten-course crop rotations and combined graingrass tilled. The ordinary black soil, low-humic, heavy loamy in mechanical composition. The capacity of humus horizon is 113-116 cm with a total content of humus on the date of the experience beginning is 3.88%. Arable (0-30cm) layer was characterized by the following parameters: total nitrogen content - 0.22-0.24, mineral -10,0-10,5mg / kg of soil, total phosphorus-0,16- 0,19%, labile phosphorus - 12,2-12,9mg / kg soil total potassium -1,7-2,0%, exchange potassium- 386mg / kg soil. The degree of saturation of bases is 80-90%. The amount of absorbed bases is 30-40 m ekvg/ 100 g of soil. The reaction of the soil solution is weakly alkaline (PH water 8.0-8.2). The predecessor is winter wheat. General Agrotechnics is recommended for a given soil and climate of region. Solid mineral fertilizer were applied as mineral fertilizers in combination with organic fertilizer in the form of half-decomposed cattle manure. According to agro-climatic zonation the northern zone of the Krasnodar region, where the research was conducted, is related to the zone of insufficient watering with hydrothermal coefficient 0.7-0.9 with an annual rainfall of 350.5 to 899.8 mm. During the autumn and winter period, which determines the accumulation of water in the soil, from 150.3 to 426.8 mm of rain falls or 30,4-68,9% of the annual amount. During the vegetation of sugar beet from germination to harvest -112,0- 588,9mm of rain falls, with an average daily temperature of the air 16,5-20,000С, including the period of the greatest growth of roots and accumulation of sugar from 3.2 to 557.1 of rain falls with air temperature 19,5-28,800С. Hydrothermal index is 0,01-2,83. During the years of the research 19% of years have been characterized as unfavorable (hydrothermal index 0.67), 44% of years as moderate on moisture supply and temperature conditions (hydrothermal index 0.99) and 37% of years as favorable (hydrothermal index 1.05). The generalization of the research results obtained by us in the long-term stationary experiment, allowed us to estimate the impact of different standards and systems of fertilizer on the productivity of sugar beet and sugar content in the roots. On average, during the years of research, the root harvest under the influence of fertilizer amounted to 36,7-45,6 t / ha per unit area with the addition to the control variant, that isn’t manurable, amounted from 6.6 to 15.5 t / ha. The highest yield of root is 43,0-45,6 t / ha which was obtained with systems of fertilizer with complete mineral nutrition
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abstract 1171603088 issue 117 pp. 1341 – 1356 31.03.2016 ru 519
The article deals with the effectiveness of mineral and organic fertilizers in long-term application (for more than thirty years) according to the influence on the fertility of ordinary black soil of the Western Ciscaucasia and productivity of sugar beet. The investigations were carried out in the long-term stationary experiment laid on the experimental stationary section "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" of P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. The experiment was laid simultaneously in time and space in two ten-course crop rotations and combined grain-grass tilled. In the structure of sown areas sugar beet occupied 10% of crop rotation area and was placed after the winter wheat. During three rotations it was studied: 1- control without fertilizer with natural forming level of mineral nutrition; 2- minimal dose N21P26K16 3- medium dose N43P52K33 ; 4 - N43P52K33, 5- high dose N96P104K68; 6- organo-mineral system¹ N43P52K34 + 12 t/ha of manure; 7- organo-mineral system² N20P24K34 + II-III rotations tillage of straw crop + 6 t/ha of manure; 8- medium dose P52K33; 9- medium dose N43K33; 10- medium dose N43K52. The soil which is used by organo-mineral system with increased and high standards of mineral fertilizers had higher concentration of mineral nitrogen. Long systematic application of fertilizer had more noticeable effect on soil phosphorus regime. The provision of soil by exchange potassium tended to decline from rotation to rotation. If at the completion of the first rotation the content of this battery was at the level 362,0-433,0 mg / kg of soil, in 2010, these values were 356,0-405,0 mg / kg of soil, remaining at the level of increased and high provision characterized to ordinary black-soil. Fertilizers for crop rotation provided almost equal yield increase: in the first rotation - 4,9-16,0 t / ha in the second 5,3- 17,1, the third 6,1-15,5 t / ha. In the moderate favorable for moisture and temperature conditions during the first and third rotation (hydrothermal index 0,8- 0,76), the value of sugar beet yield was 30,1-46,1 and 35,7-52,1 t / ha, in comparison with tougher conditions for the second rotation (hydrothermal index 0,41- 1,96) higher up to 2,6-6,5 9,2-16,0 t / ha. Research carried out in long-term stationary experiment showed that long-term use of fertilizers prevents to the loss of soil organic substances, supporting the humus content at the level of 3.95-3.99%, and organicsystems contribute to its reproduction to 4,01-4,21%. soil nitrogen state is stabilized. However, there is a tendency of decrease of the exchange potassium in mineral fertilizer systems. In the conditions of insufficient moisture supply of the northern zone of Krasnodar region the most applicable norm is N60P90R60, both in mineral and organic-systems, ensuring the collection of root crops within 43,0-45,2 t / ha, with an estimated amount of sugar 6,92-7, 14 t / ha. The given systems of fertilizer provide the yield of root crops 53,3-56,0 t / ha with the synthesis of sugar 8,19-8,70 t / ha. Increasing the rate of fertilizer in 2 times from medium to N120P160R120 doesn’t increase the productivity, reduce sugar content of root crop to 0.4-0.8%. It is undesirable to use fertilizer that are unbalanced in nutrition elements in which root crops yield declines from 5.4 to 19.0%, and current biological sugar from 6,1 to 25,9%
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abstract 1181604005 issue 118 pp. 87 – 112 29.04.2016 ru 845
The article presents the results of studying the effect of different lengths of fruit vines with the same load wintering buds of bushes on the yield and quality of Moldova grapes. It was found that the biological indicators of fruiting Moldova grapes improved by lengthening fruit vines, taking into account weather conditions. Shortening the vines increases germination and fruitfulness degree base buds and reserve buds. Productivity is increased by lengthening fruit vines. It is determined by the degree of fruitfulness buds of the vine, the development of floscules of wintering buds, bunch and berries weight, number of berries in bunches. The optimum is pruning vines to 10-12 buds. Harmonious taste, weight of bunches and berries, transportability factor fixed high yield of grapes standard (85,6-86,4%) with different length of fruit vines. The highest productivity of leaves makes pruning fruit vines to 10-12 buds. The strength of shoot growth and volume growth of bushes reduced at an elongation of the fruit vines. The more moderate growth of shoots observed at long (10-12 buds) pruning vines. There is no significant difference to the degree of maturation of shoots with different length vines. In order to increase the yield of Moldova grapes in the central zone of the Krasnodar region expedient cut fruit vines to 10-12 buds
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abstract 1181604008 issue 118 pp. 147 – 163 29.04.2016 ru 861
The article gives the results of the study of the texture of the grapes and biochemical characteristics of red wine grape varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sapeari, Tsimladar, Pinot Noir for the production of juice of direct extraction and blending. The studied varieties in terms of the structure of the cluster may be divided into three groups of blackpinene (21.1), Cabernet Franc and Tsimladar (18.7 - 17.5), Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi (16.5 - 16.8) , and bunches of addition in terms of two groups - Tsimladar (17.6), Cabernet - Sauvignon and other (15.6 - 16.4). The structural component of grapes varieties ranged from 5.2 to 5.9, berry index - from 62.1 to 83.4, the output of the wort from 74.2 to 76.3%. The content of sugars and acids in the berries of all varieties is favorable for the production of beverages. The largest Tartaric acid content was found in the juice of the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Black, malic acid - in the juice of varieties Saperavi, Merlot, Tsimladar, citric acid - in the juice Tsimladar varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi. The ratio of tartaric acid to the content of the apple juice Cabernet Sauvignon was 2.9: 1, Cabernet Franc 2.6: 1, Pinot Black 2.5: 1, Merlot and Tsimladar 1.6: 1, 1.1 Sapevari: 1. According to the content of potassium cations, sodium, magnesium and calcium there were chosen three varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc. The lowest content of potassium and magnesium cations was in the variety of Tsimladar, Sodium – in the varieties Merlot and Saperavi, calcium – in Saperavi. Excellent tasting commended for juices was given to Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi, Tsimladar, good – to Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot black. Best blending juice obtained by mixing the juice of the grape of the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot black 70:30, Saperavi and Pinot black 50:50. From the grapes of produced varieties, we can produce juice and varietal by name ampelographic variety and blended to extend the range