Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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910 kb

OENOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF MERLOT VARIETY AND ITS CLONES IN DIFFERENT ZONES OF GROWTH

abstract 1271703070 issue 127 pp. 980 – 995 31.03.2017 ru 217
The article presents the results of the study of yield, mechanical and biochemical composition of Merlot grape vine variety and its two clones in the conditions of Taman and Anapa subzone of the Krasnodar region. Clones differ from the maternal variety by the large number of berries in the bunch, the mass of the berry, the average mass of the bunch and the yield. Maternal variety and its clones are characterized by very close percentages of berries and combs in the bunch and by indicators of the structure, composition and structure of the bunch. By the yield of juice percentage, in different growth areas clones showed the same results as the original variety. According to the content of glucose, fructose, organic acids (wine, apple, citric, succinic), potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium cations in the juice of berries, there is no reliable differences between the original variety and its clones. The content of dry substances, sugars, titrated acids, and the sugar-acid coefficient depended on the yield, but in general, they were favorable for the production of wine materials and juices. Merlo phanagoriiskii and Merloc are ecologically plastic and belong to the first group of varieties that retain their valuable characteristics in different areas of growth
174 kb

POLLUTION OF THE SUBURB OF VLADIKAVKAZ SOILS WITH HEAVY METALS AND THEIR ACCUMULATION IN VEGETATIVE MASS AND GRAIN OF TRITICALE

abstract 1261702015 issue 126 pp. 211 – 223 28.02.2017 ru 215
The impact of anthropogenic pollution on soil phytotoxity and on triticale plants in Vladikavkaz suburb was investigated in the work. The objects of the study were sod-gley leached soils and different varieties of triticale plants. The research was conducted in 2010-2011 at the Department of Biology of Gorsky State Agrarian University. The article gives data on microelements content in soils and plants within the range of influence of Vladikavkaz industrial enterprises. There was a marked change of miroelements’ mobility in soil and activity of their penetration into plants during fertilization. The sort characteristics of microelements’ accumulation in vegetative mass of triticale were researched. The conducted research is informative for soil and plant condition monitoring in anthropogenically polluted environment. The work indicates the increasing danger of microelements (including heavy metals) accumulation in soil and their inclusion in biological cycle in concentration that is too toxic for plants, animals and people during the usage of fertilizers, especially their high doses. The most dangerous among heavy metals are mercury, cadmium and lead. We used MPC rate of excess to estimate the content of these metals. The results of the research can be used in soil and cereal plant condition monitoring and diagnosis and in development of regional environmental regulation
196 kb

BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY AS AN ELEMENT OF ECOLOGICAL MODERNIZATION OF PIG-BREEDING

abstract 1261702041 issue 126 pp. 582 – 599 28.02.2017 ru 333
The article analyzes the main factors of the negative impact of pig farms on the environment, for the characteristics of which are used criteria such as emissions of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide, dust, loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in manure output, feed consumption and water consumption, economic evaluation, capital costs of reducing emissions, operational cost. The technical level, resource and energy consumption in the production of pork have been analyzed in a comparative perspective. The necessity of implementation of best available techniques in order to ensure environmentally oriented production growth has been provided. The importance of the development of technology selection algorithm and clarification the basic criteria for the selection has been emphasized. Also, there was detected the role of technical regulation for the prevention of excess pollution. The necessity of a comprehensive approach was proven for the implementation of NDT in the framework of environmental and industrial policies. Implementing NDT will provide the ecological modernization of pig production, which is confirmed by the experience of European countries, successfully implementing the concept of NDT from the 70s of the twentieth century. At the same time, not only economic measures should be used (exemption from pollution charges, grants and subsidies), but also the administrative tools (based on a valuation of NDT, integrated permits). Daylight technological regulation will provide "green" economic growth and will contribute to solving social and economic problems. Implementation of the project is not possible without the exchange of information, the definition of time and economic characteristics of the implementation of NDT, comparative analysis and classification technologies to NDT. In 2017, it has already been planned to publish the NDT reference "Intensive breeding of pigs,” while the implementation of best available technologies will become the basis of ecological modernization of the industry. The inclusion of the author to the technical working group on development of the handbook "Intensive breeding of pigs" allows to participate on-line in the discussion of topical issues
860 kb

YELD AND QUALITY OF ARTEMIS, INKROCHE TAMANSKII, SAUVIGNON TAMANSKII, NEWEST TECHNICAL GRAPEVINE VARIETIES

abstract 1261702044 issue 126 pp. 620 – 631 28.02.2017 ru 182
The article presents results of the study of yield, mechanical composition and quality of bunches of newest white grapevine varieties called Artemis, Sauvignon tamanskii and Inkroche tamanskii, in the conditions of Taman in the Krasnodar region. The yield of the studied genotypes ranged from 10.4 to 13.3 t / ha: the highest yield was in Artemis, and the lowest – in Sauvignon tamanskii. The average weight of the bunch was in Sauvignon tamanskii (152 g), the variety Artemis had 143 g and Inkroche tamanskii had 130 g of bunch weight. The percentage of berries in clusters ranged from 95.3 in Artemis to 95.9 in Inkroche tamanskii and Sauvignon tamanskii. The ratio of fruit mass to the mass of crests was 20.3 in the varieties of Artemis and 23.5 in Inkroche tamanskii and Sauvignon tamanskii. In genotypes of Artemis, Sauvignon and Inkroche Taman Taman the weight of 100 berries was 200, 160 and 130 g, respectively, the mass of 100 seeds - 4.6; 3.1 and 2.9 g, the average weight of the pulp from the juice to the weight of the skin - 24.3; 19.5; 15.9. The percentage of pulp and juice in clusters of the studied varieties was 85,9-89,1%, and the ratio of pulp to juice to the solid residue 6,1-8,2. Yield of musts from the studied sample was 74,5-75,4%. The content of sugars in the berries (17,5-19,6 g / 100 cm3) was dependent on the yield, the characteristics of varieties and timing of the harvest, but the harvest was favorable for the production of beverages and wine materials
214 kb

THE METHOD OF THE DRYING GRAIN INTENSIFICATION WITH ACTIVE VENTILATION USING MICROWAVERECYCLING

abstract 1261702051 issue 126 pp. 723 – 734 28.02.2017 ru 380
The need of improving the grain drying technology is due to a significant volume of this operation, high specific energy and high standards to preserve quality of grain. In this regard, the development of new technologies and equipment aimed at reducing the cost of fuel and electricity, providing the preservation of grain quality has essential meaning to reduce the drying cost. Usually, the electrophysical effects on the dehydrated material not only contribute to the thickness reduction or destruction of the boundary layers and increase the surface of phase contact, i.e. they cause the combined effects of the intensification of the drying process that is economically favorable and they say for a broader practical use of electrotechnologies. Method of grain drying using microwave recycling in installations of active aeration bunker type allows increasing productivity compared with standard technology for up to 30% and reducing process energy consumption by 17%
155 kb

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITION OF PARAFFIN - WAX PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR PRESOWING PROCESSING OF WINTER WHEAT SEEDS

abstract 1261702058 issue 126 pp. 832 – 843 28.02.2017 ru 152
We have proposed the method of presowing processing of seeds of winter wheat using a hydrophobic paraffin-wax system of the new composition. Water protected paraffinceresin coating has been used before for storage of garlic. However, the paraffin coating were not applied to wheat seeds and were not investigated their effect on germination, growth and further development of plants of winter wheat. This work has been done for the first time. The ceresin wax is replaced by sunflower wax. New component composition of the hydrophobic waterproof coating winter wheat seeds: sunflower wax – 15-20 % wt .; paraffin – all the rest of it. Sunflower wax is a surfaceactive substance and has the properties of the plasticizer and the dispersant of the dispersed structure of the paraffin. The advantages of this coating: it protects the seeds from moisture loss, regulates the timing of their germination, contributes to the preservation of accumulated nutrients, and enhances plant growth and development; it increases the yield of wheat. In the field, we have set growth stimulating ability of paraffin-wax coating of winter wheat seeds of variety called Charade. The resulting increase in yield was 20% (control of 52.6 с / ha), while maintaining the quality of grain. This use of sunflower wax solves an important environmental problem – disposal of oilseed production waste
139 kb

CAYENNE, NEW HERBICIDE FOR FIGHTING WEEDS IN CROPS OF WINTER WHEAT

abstract 1251701004 issue 125 pp. 102 – 111 31.01.2017 ru 368
One of the most destabilizing factors of crop production is weed infestation of crops. Despite annual herbicide treatment, weed infestation of crops of winter wheat remains high, with a predominance of annual dicotyledonous weed with a higher proportion of drug resistant on the basis of 2,4-D. We also notice increased range and density of perennial dicotyledonous weeds. New combinational herbicide called Cayenne, manufactured by LLC "Agro Expert group", which in its composition contains two active substances: thifensulfuron-methyl (500 g/l) and florasulam (170 g/l), highly inhibits both annual and perennial dicotyledonous weeds. According to the working program of the registrant's company we have tested Cayenne on crops of winter wheat in spring in the tillering phase and the formation of the second internode. It is shown that its use in doses of 0.025 and 0.035 kg/ha in mixture with 200 ml/ha of surfactant-Bit 90, W provides effective suppression of annual and perennial dicotyledonous weeds (90 – 100 %). The negative effect on the culture was not observed. At the same time, within 2-3 days after herbicide application we observed cessation of growth, chlorosis, dieback of growing points of weeds. Complete death was observed after 15 – 20 days
161 kb

SHAPE AND DIMENSIONS OF PLANTING SEEDS AS A FACTOR IN THE FORMATION OF THE YIELD OF CALENDULA MEDICINAL PLANT IN THE FOOTHILLS ZONE OF GORNY ALTAI

abstract 1251701020 issue 125 pp. 285 – 295 31.01.2017 ru 497
The effect of seeds shapes and sizes to field survival, plant stand, harvesting amount and structure of calendula crude drug were under investigation. Biological feature of calendula is heterogeneous seeds formation, when the same inflorescence forms seeds of various shapes and sizes. The following seeds fractions according to their shapes and sizes were used for sowing: uncinate shaped, crescent shaped as well as unseparated, including, except uncinate and crescent seeds, ring-form and scaphoid shaped seeds. It was discovered that maximum indices of laboratory, field survival of calendula seeds and plant stand were in conjunction with uncinate shaped seeds. Maximum crude drug harvest was in conjunction with the sowing seeds of uncinate shape, varied from years from 2.11 to 2.40 t/h; minimum- at unseparated seeds sowing, varied from years from 1.83 to 2.05 t/h. Crude drug extreme efficiency was determined in 1-3 gatherings by inflorescence weight gain and its quantity increase on the same plant. According to the size of elements of crude drug harvesting structure (inflorescence quantity and mass of the same plant, the same inflorescence mass) the variant of uncinate shaped seeds sowing had advantages
171 kb

MIGRATION FEATURES OF HEAVY METALS FROM WATER SOLUBLE SOIL COMBINATIONS IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF A SQUASH FRUIT

abstract 1251701021 issue 125 pp. 296 – 308 31.01.2017 ru 297
The accumulation of heavy metals was studied in different component parts of a White squash (skin and flesh, flesh, seed skin, seed kernel, peduncle). It is known that the basic source of feed for agricultural crops are mobile water soluble organic and mineral soil combinations which are polluted by heavy metals in different degrees. In the process of their migration they are able to accumulate in different parts of plants or to disperse. The mechanism of quantitative estimation of migration of heavy metals in direction of removal of mobile water soluble soil combinations to various parts of a White squash is developed by the author. The ranks of mobility of heavy metals are made from the most mobile manganese to the most indifferent iron. The model of estimation of mobility of the rest spectrum of heavy metals is chosen, namely: lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt in relation to manganese and iron. Basing on the position of a separate element in a mobile rank and its concentration it is possible to define the source of entering to a squash fruit. It may be water soluble soil combinations, irrigation water and atmospheric aerosols
162 kb

WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY ON THE LEACHED BLACK HUMUS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN PRE-CAUCASIAN REGION

abstract 1251701049 issue 125 pp. 724 – 737 31.01.2017 ru 232
The reaction of winter wheat cultivar ‘Antonina’ on the level of fertility and doses of fertilizers on crop productivity was studied. Investigations are carried out in multivariate 11 –course crop and grain-grass rotation stationary: factor ‘A’- the fertility of the soil; factor ‘B’ - fertilizer system; factor ‘C’ - the system of plants protection; factor ‘D’ - the main methods of soil tillage. Four models of soil fertility levels were studied in the experiment: А0 - initial (natural background); А1 - average (200 kg / ha Р2О5 and 200 t / ha of solid manure); А2 - high (double dose); at А3 - high (tripled) on three backgrounds of basic soil cultivation: nonmoldboard, recommended, moldboard with deep bursting and without the application of tillage (direct seeding and the natural rate of soil fertility). The soil is heavy leached black humus with humus content in the arable layer of 2.5% - 2.9%. On the basis of proven researches it was found that for the sustainable yield of winter wheat the dose of mineral fertilizers should be increased and nitrogen - up to 140 kg per hectare. The increase in yield is due the rise of the quantity of grains per ear and weight of grain per ear
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