Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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280 kb

BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF FUNGICIDES IN WINTER WHEAT CROPS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CROP YIELD

abstract 1321708080 issue 132 pp. 1035 – 1044 31.10.2017 ru 385
For the production of high quality winter wheat grain, it is necessary to observe the technology of growing the crop and creating optimal conditions for the growth and development of plants. An important role in it is played not only by agrotechnical measures, but also by effective protection of crops from pests. The phytosanitary state of winter wheat sowings has worsened significantly in recent years, however, the degree of damage to crops and the harmfulness of fungal diseases can be significantly reduced, and in some cases completely prevented by treatment of crops with fungicides. The range of fungicides is improved annually by incorporating more effective and less environmentally hazardous preparations. The research is aimed at determining the optimal rates of consumption, the biological effectiveness of new fungicides and assessing their effect on the yield of winter wheat. As a result, it has been established that treatment with Abucus Ultra with a rate of 1.0 l / ha has protective properties, but does not treat plants (72.2%). This further leads to a loss of an average of about 0.5 tons of grain per hectare. Fungicide Akanto Plus in the investigated rates of consumption has good protective and eradicating (healing) properties and with a decrease in the rate of consumption of less loss of yield. Thus, the choice of the preparation and its consumption rate should be based on an understanding of the phytosanitary situation, taking into account the condition of crops and the agroclimatic situation
133 kb

THE GROWTH AND PRODUCTION ABILITY OF SHOOTS AT DIFFERENT VARIANTS OF CUTTING FRUITBEARING VINES

abstract 1221608050 issue 122 pp. 725 – 734 31.10.2016 ru 386
The article presents the results of studying the impact of different options for cutting fruit vines on the growth and productivity of shoots of the grapes. The obtained experimental data indicate the excessive overload of vines with eyes and shoots when performing contour trimming bushes without normalizing the choice of shoots, in comparison with other variants of experience. A significant increase of eyes on the vines when performing contour cutting was because during this method of cutting, the cutoff is at a certain level all the shoots are horizontal on the arm vines. A big load of vines shoots when performing contour cutting has reduced the length of shoots at 48 – 51%, and leaf area developed on the shoots of 53 – 54%. While the lowest productivity was different shoots developed on the vines in 3 variant, because here the contour cutting vines was not accompanied by a subsequent breaking of superfluous shoots, which have overloaded the bushes shoots. At the same time, contour cutting vines with subsequent breaking of the normalizing excess shoots were allowed to grow for fruiting the bushes a sufficient amount of normally developed shoots with high productivity and good quality bunches
194 kb

FINAL INDICATORS OF VALUABLE PROPERTIES FOR NEW TOBACCO SORTS (FOR FIVE YEAR PERIOD)

abstract 1281704091 issue 128 pp. 1294 – 1308 28.04.2017 ru 387
Basic aim of institute’s breeding is to keep, renew and increase selection and genetic resources of Nicotiana tabacum. Final stages of this work are competitive and state sort testing procedures. Their results are base for zoning new sorts. In the article, the results on testing 8 new tobacco sorts of Trapezond and Ostrolist sort type are presented. Testing on experimental field situated in Severskii district of the Krasnodar region lasted for five years. For this purpose, phenological observations, biometric and technological properties measuring, plant productivity and dried tobacco quality assessments and other operations were carried. As the result, Trapezond 25, Ostrolist 360 and Sheptalskii 63 sorts may be recommended for zoning and utilizing in industry. Trapezond 25 and Sheptalskii 63 are sorts with high productivity, high quality of dried tobacco and good curing properties. Ostrolist 360 when earlymiddle maturing keeps high productivity and quality of cured tobacco. Other sorts: Trapezond 115, Ostrolist 311, Ostrolist 149, Ostrolist 90, Krupnolistniy 22 can be initial material for further selection
277 kb

SCIENTIFIC AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TOBACCO SEEDS GROWING

abstract 1211607048 issue 121 pp. 835 – 845 30.09.2016 ru 391
Nicotiana tabacum and rustica are facultative self-pollinated plants, therefore, because of pollination peculiarities, specific methods are applicable to growing seeds of this plants. Researches on mass, individual and family, recurrent methods of seeds selection for productivity and sowing properties are carried in the institute for revealing most efficient methods of getting seeds. Seeds growing system for Nicotiana tabacum and rustica is a part of general seeds growing system for all agricultural plants and consists of breeding, testing new sorts, mass reproduction of seeds with retained biological and productivity properties, seeds harvesting and controlling their sort and sowing properties. Primary growing of nicotiana tabacum and rustica seeds is carried by individual and family or recurrent selection and further testing of chosen plants, distinctive for this sort, on economically valuable and biological properties. Peculiarities of each zoned sort are kept by retaining its primary genome with constant selection of highly productive genotypes, specific for this sort. Well-organized seed growing system leads to sort potential revealing. Biotype composition of sort is obviously changing in a few years, so primary seeds growing system should be constantly improved
219 kb

INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF MERLO TECHNICAL GRADE IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANAPA-TAMAN ZONE

abstract 1311707129 issue 131 pp. 1571 – 1586 29.09.2017 ru 391
The article reviews the results of studying the influence of mineral fertilizers on the uvological, yielding and qualitative indices of the Merlot grape variety in the Anapo-Taman zone of the Krasnodar region. The technology of cultivation of grapes on the experimental plot was performed in accordance with the accepted for the given zone and culture. Agrobiological work was carried out at the optimal time and had a high quality of execution. Grape bushes were laid in a 3.0 x 2.0 m pattern. Formation - a two-shoulder horizontal cordon. On the bushes, there was formed the same load shoots and bunches. Scheme of experience: option 1 – no fertilizers (control); option 2 - superphosphate with a mixture of potassium salt (P90K90) from the autumn; option 3 – nitroammofoska (N120P120K120) from autumn; option 4 – ammonium nitrate (N60) in early spring. Analysis of the results of the studies on the study of biological features of growth, fruiting, yield and quality of Merlot grape varieties on the background of the use of mineral fertilizers shows their high efficiency in the conditions of the Anapo-Tamanskaya zone of the Krasnodar region and can be recommended for use in production conditions. Autumn application of nitroammofoski (N120P120K120) provides an increase in yield by 68.3%, increases the yield of mash from a hectare by 76.7% and the collection of sugar by 97.6%. Autumn application of phosphate-potassium fertilizers (P90K90) and early spring application of ammonium nitrate (N60) also contributed to an increase in yields by 33.3 and 40.6%, respectively. On the output of the wort, these options are equal, and for the collection of sugar phosphate-potassium fertilizers exceed ammonia nitrate
174 kb

POLLUTION OF THE SUBURB OF VLADIKAVKAZ SOILS WITH HEAVY METALS AND THEIR ACCUMULATION IN VEGETATIVE MASS AND GRAIN OF TRITICALE

abstract 1261702015 issue 126 pp. 211 – 223 28.02.2017 ru 393
The impact of anthropogenic pollution on soil phytotoxity and on triticale plants in Vladikavkaz suburb was investigated in the work. The objects of the study were sod-gley leached soils and different varieties of triticale plants. The research was conducted in 2010-2011 at the Department of Biology of Gorsky State Agrarian University. The article gives data on microelements content in soils and plants within the range of influence of Vladikavkaz industrial enterprises. There was a marked change of miroelements’ mobility in soil and activity of their penetration into plants during fertilization. The sort characteristics of microelements’ accumulation in vegetative mass of triticale were researched. The conducted research is informative for soil and plant condition monitoring in anthropogenically polluted environment. The work indicates the increasing danger of microelements (including heavy metals) accumulation in soil and their inclusion in biological cycle in concentration that is too toxic for plants, animals and people during the usage of fertilizers, especially their high doses. The most dangerous among heavy metals are mercury, cadmium and lead. We used MPC rate of excess to estimate the content of these metals. The results of the research can be used in soil and cereal plant condition monitoring and diagnosis and in development of regional environmental regulation
189 kb

THE SEARCH FOR NEW SUGAR BEET IMMUNOMODULATORS AMOND PYRIDYLHYDRAZONE DERIVATIVES

abstract 1221608033 issue 122 pp. 461 – 470 31.10.2016 ru 394
In order to find compounds that increase sugar beet resistance to the adverse effects of herbicides, a series of pyridylhydrazone derivatives have been synthesized. The protective effect of new compounds for the herbicide mixture Betanal, Lontrel and Super Zeleke was studied in field conditions. The effect of pyridylhydrazones on the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments in leaves was investigated. Substances with a high protective effect were found
164 kb

INFLUENCE OF STOCKS ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF GRAPES AND WINE OF RKATSITELI VARIETY

abstract 1201606027 issue 120 pp. 412 – 424 30.06.2016 ru 395
The article presents results of the six-year study of the effect of stocks Berlandieri × Riparia Kober 5BB and Chasselas × Berlandieri 41B on yield, quality of grapes and wine Rkatsiteli in the central zone of the Krasnodar region. Effect of stock on the scion strongly depends on the annual weather conditions. In a given year, there is a stock, better adapted to the weather conditions. Stocks of Chasselas × Berlandieri 41B increases winter hardiness variety Rkatsiteli. On average, during six years the stocks have not been resulted in significant difference between the percentages of developed into shoots buds and fertile shoots shown in the coefficients of fruiting and fruitbearing shoots Rkatsiteli. Among all the influencing factors, the degree of influence of stocks is 0.1-0.4%. Some differences in forming of generative organs of wintering buds along the fruiting twig under the influence of stocks do not lead to significant differences in biological terms of fruiting varieties in the whole piece. On average, six years of significant difference in the effect of stocks on the average weight of the bunches, and the yield is not defined - the degree of influence of rootstocks on mentioned indicators is 0,1-2,1%. A significant impact of stocks on the dynamics of sugar accumulation in berries has not been discovered. The degree of influence of stocks on to the final sugar content and acidity of berries is 0.3 and 14.5%, respectively. The wine produced from Rkatsiteli berries on a stock Berlandieri × Riparia Kober 5BB has the better tasting score than on the stock Chasselas × Berlandieri 41B (7.5 and 7.4 points, respectively). The main influence on fruiting of the variety Rkatsiteli was provided by the conditions of the current and previous vegetation. Within the conditions of the central zone of the Krasnodar region the cultivating of the variety Rkatsiteli is reasonable for both studied stocks
520 kb

MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEEF OF YOUNG SPECIAL MEAT AND HOLSTAIN SPECIES GROWN IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

abstract 1211607141 issue 121 pp. 2288 – 2330 30.09.2016 ru 396
The author has examined peculiarities of meat productivity of animals of the most common breeds: Charolais, Simmental, Aberdeen Angus, Hereford, Kuban type of Red Steppe. As a result of the slaughter carried out for younger group achieved 15 months age, the Charolais breed bulls exceeded peers of Kuban type on slaughter weight to 60.9 kg (20.9 %), Aberdeen Angus – 53.8 kg (18.5 %), Hereford and Simmental respectively – to 35.1 and 24.8 kg (8,5-12,0 %). By the age of 18 months their superiority increased respectively by 56.9; 57.5; 55.8 and 29.9 kg (16.8; 16.9; 16.5 and 8.82%). Halves of bodies of the Kuban breed (considering the specific type of boneless beef output) aged 15 months gave way to all the groups: Charolais and Angus – by 1.1- 1.5%, Simmental and Hereford – by 0.4-0.6%. The yield of premium beef exceeds the standards in all genotypes: Kuban – by 9.5%, beef breeds – by 11.2% (Charolais) and 19% (Simmental). The balance beetween dry matter and moisture is in the optimal range (0.43: 1-0,73: 1). At 15 months of age, in the number of dry matter, Charolais bulls outnumbered Aberdeen-Angus and Red steppe at 5.1-5.2%, Simmental and Hereford - on 3,0-4,9%. With age, in the meat of calves of beef breeds the level of fat increased, for example, in Hereford and Simmental 0.3-0.5%, Aberdeen Angus and Simmental – 0.7-0.8%. In the middle of a sample of ground beef of carcasses of the calves of Charolais breed at the age of 18 months it contained more protein than in the meat of the calves of Red steppe (1.2%, Hereford (1.1%), Angus (1.4%), Simmental (1,3%). All the meat of the carcasses of the calves of specialized beef breeds was of high quality and diet: one part of the protein had 0.59 parts of fat (Aberdeen Angus) and 0.45 parts (Hereford)
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MODERN ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF SORGHUM FORAGE

abstract 1231609052 issue 123 pp. 783 – 792 30.11.2016 ru 396
Sorghum is a source of concentrated, succulent and coarse forage. Its grain is used for making the mixed fodder and as the concentrated forage for swine, cows, sheep, horses and poultry. Sweet sorghum is successfully used for silage and haylage. Green chop of Sudan grass is used as fresh food for domestic animals and it’s used for making hay and silage. The nutritional value of the fodder is the way to meet the animal needs in nutrients, necessary for living. To determine the nutritional value of the fodder, oat fodder units and energy fodder units or exchange energy are used. At present the assessment of nutritional value according to fodder units is being revised, because it doesn’t give the true picture of the value of fodder nutrition and animal needs in nutrients. The general energetic nutritional value of fodder is considered as contents of all organic substances, supplied with fodder or with its energy. The nutritional value of fodder is valued according to the characteristics of its chemical composition, digestion of nutrients and general (energetic) nutritional value. The purpose of the work is to assess the nutritional value of fodder, obtained from the best sorghum varieties, as the food for different kinds of agricultural animals. Sorghum, used as fodder for poultry possesses the largest nutritional value. Among the grain sorghum varieties, the variety ‘Zernogradskoe 88’ has got the biggest value of fodder units. The green chop of Sudan grass and green fodder for silage of sweet sorghum possess the greatest nutritional value for swine. The varieties of Sudan grass ‘Krasava’ and ‘Arkadiya’ and the variety of sweet sorghum ‘Listvenit’ are the best varieties according to the contents of fodder units
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