Scientific Journal of KubSAU

Polythematic online scientific journal
of Kuban State Agrarian University
ISSN 1990-4665
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178 kb

COMPOSITION OF THE CLUSTERS AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF WHITE VINE SORTS OF GRAPE FOR PRODUCING JUICES OF DIRECT PRESSING

abstract 1061502079 issue 106 pp. 1179 – 1194 28.02.2015 ru 1014
The article contains the results of the study of mechanical composition of grapes and biochemical characteristics of white wine grapes for the production of juice of direct extraction and blending. Thus, the yield of studied grapes ranged from 7.5 to 13.2 t / ha: highest yielding varieties and hybrids of Pervenets Magaracha and Tsitronnyy Magaracha, and the lowest - Chardonnay and Pinot blanc. At an average weight of clusters of varieties were divided into three groups - large clusters (230-243 g) in varieties Pervenets Magaracha and Tsitronnyy Magaracha, medium (181-184 g) - the varieties Chardonnay and Pinot blanc, small (112-116 g) - the varieties Bianca and Viorica. By weight of the 100 berries were divided into four groups - Bianca and Viorica (I), Pervenets Magaracha (II), Chardonnay (III), Pinot blanc and Tsitronnyy Magaracha (IV). Weight of 100 seeds from the largest varieties Pinot blanc and Bianca, and the lowest - in the varieties of Tsitronnyy Magaracha and Chardonnay. The solids content in the juices of these varieties ranged from 19.4 to 21.8%, which corresponded to branded products and higher of commodity varieties. Mass concentration of sugars ranged from 18.4 to 21.3 g / 100 cm3. Titratable acid content in the juice was varied from 0.65 to 0.78 g / 100 cm3. Sugar-acid ratio, defined as the ratio of concentration of sugars and titratable acids ranged from 23.6 to 30. The recommended values for this indicator were within 22-30. According to the results of the tasting, we rated "excellent" the juices from the varieties of Tsitronnyy Magaracha, Viorica (19 points) and Bianca (17 points); "good" marks were given to the juices from Pinot blanc, Chardonnay, Pervenets Magaracha: this means that we can get juices of excellent quality from the grape varieties under study with the title of ampelographic variety; in addition, the juice of the grape of varieties Chardonnay, Pinot blanc, Bianca, Pervenets Magaracha due to their potassium content will be functional to improve the cardiovascular system. On the basis of the tasting we have conducted mixing of the juices from the varieties of Viorica and citron Magaracha with other juice varieties 50:50 and 70:30. Sensory evaluation showed that blending juices from the varieties of Viorika and citron juice Tsitronnyy Magaracha other varieties improves product quality and 50:50 increases by one the total score, and 70:30 - two units. Blend of the varieties of Viorica and Tsitronnyy Magaracha does not increase the total score, but gives the product a special flavor and aroma. Hence, using the grape varieties under study we can produce varietal juices with the name of their ampelographic type and blended juices to extend the assortment
261 kb

METHODOLOGY FOR FROST-RESISTANCE DETERMINING OF GRAPE VARIETIES (BASED ON EXAMPLE OF STAGE AND CHARACTER OF DAMAGING WINTER BUDS IN GRAPE BUSHES IN JANUARY 2015 IN ZAO “POBEDA” IN TEMRIUK DISTRICT

abstract 1061502082 issue 106 pp. 1219 – 1242 28.02.2015 ru 1002
In January 2015, at the Vineyard and ZAO "Pobeda" in Temryuk District of the Krasnodar region, the thermometer dropped to minus 21,6 C, which resulted in significant damage to the central wintering buds. The article presents a method of determining the degree of damage of wintering buds. Based on the results of inspection of variety by sections divided into 3 groups. Group 1: saved between 40 and 72% central. This group includes the following 7 varieties : Pervenets Magaracha (uch. 64) Gibernal (uch. 74/3), Viorica (uch. 77), Riton (uch. 66), Riesling (uch. 82), Traminer (uch. 73/2), Chardonnay (uch. 73/3). Cutting of bushes should be carried out by the usual way. The task of cutting - compensate the loss of crops due to leaving the greater load. Group 2: Central buds was damaged nearly 70-85%, saved from 20 to 35% of replacement buds. This group includes Merlot (uch. 83), Tsitronyy Magaracha (uch. 69), Augustine (uch. 66), Saperavi (uch. 79), Chardonnay (uch. 74/1), Muscat white (uch. 73) Cabernet Sauvignon (uch. 80). During cutting should be left as much as possible of annual shoots and well-developed secondary shoots. Group 3: damaged more than 85% of central buds, replacement buds significantly damaged . To this group assigned Saperavi (uch. 80), Pinot blanc (uch. 74), Merlot (uch. 80/2), Moldova (uch. 70), Chardonnay (uch. 68), Moldova (uch. 22) Kaberne- Sauvignon (uch. 68), Moldova (uch. 38), Arkadia (uch. 78), Tsimlyansky black (uch. 68). Pre-cutting consists in removing all clearly dead and unusable parts of the bush (dried vines, stumps, annual shoots) that will accelerate the development of shoots from the angular buds and resting buds. Considering the high plasticity of grape plants, can not only in accelerated way to restore the crown of bushes damaged by frost, but also get a crop in the current year, using special methods of agricultural technology
128 kb

STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF ECOSSE ENRICHED BIOHUMATES ON THE WORK OF A PHOTOSYNTHETIC COMPLEX OF RADISH PLANTS

abstract 1071503003 issue 107 pp. 77 – 85 31.03.2015 ru 898
In the article we show the results of studying the influence of Ecoss enriched biogumat on the photosynthetic complex of radish plants. Seed treatment with humate allows plants to form more powerful root system and develop resistance to various diseases, they are less affected root and basal rot. Plants form a large leaf surface. In leaves we have increased chlorophyll content, they remain longer green, more intense and will accumulate in vegetation greater number of assimilant (carbohydrates), and ultimately increase the yield. More intensive work of the leaves apparatus also contributes to the reduction of nitrates in the production, which is especially important when growing vegetables, melons and potatoes. Humates have a positive impact on yields on soils of different fertility and the different value of the yield. This not only increases the yield of 3 - 5 kg/ha, but also increases the gluten content in grain of winter wheat by 3 - 4%. The application of humates has a high adaptability. Their use can be combined with seed treatment pesticides, spraying crops with pesticides, mineral fertilizers. Therefore, humates are widely spread not only in Russia but all over the world. We have studied the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids at leaf apparatus of radish plants, depending on the methods and doses of the processing with humic preparation
122 kb

STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF ECOSSE ENRICHED BIOHUMATES ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF VEGETABLE CROPS

abstract 1071503004 issue 107 pp. 86 – 93 31.03.2015 ru 1142
This article describes the results of laboratory experience on the impact of Ecoss enriched Biogumat on the productivity of radish varieties of Corundum in the conditions of artificial climate of Kuban state agrarian University. Sowing was made on November 24, 2014, in two replications. Processing was carried out by humic preparation with a content of humic substances 4 g/L. Humic substances are a special group of organic compounds, the origin of which is associated with the biochemical processes of decomposition and transformation of plant residues (leaves, roots, branches, trunks), animal remains, protein bodies of microorganisms In their composition we have detected humic acids, fulvic acids, salts of these acids, humates and fulvates and Hominy - durable connection of humic and fulvic acids from soil minerals. We have developed different ways of processing plants of radish humic preparation. The influence of this drug on the passage of the phenological stages of plant development was examined for radish and its morphometric characteristics and productivity, depending on processing methods
155 kb

SUNFLOWER HUSKS AS A SOURCE OF FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVES

abstract 1071503008 issue 107 pp. 142 – 155 31.03.2015 ru 1190
The article describes the results of the complex feed additive based on sunflower husk, enriched with beer wort with the addition of pumpkin pulp. We have studied the chemical composition of sunflower husk, which is the secondary resource of the processing plant raw material, selected methods of enrichment of this raw material with the help of fungi Trichoderma harzianum. Cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the basis of fungi of the genus Trichoderma for use in agriculture and animal feed production is often obtained when the surface method of cultivation. These drugs are cheap and contain a significant number of related hydrolytic enzymes, 29 such as amylase, protease, pectinase and hemicellulase, which are also important and valuable to the consumer. As a vitamin component of the feed additive we have selected a pumpkin pulp, which is a valuable feed for livestock and poultry is a source of carotene, fat and nitrogenous substances. We have also developed elements of technology for complex feed additive. We have created a comprehensive feed additive which can be used in the composition of diets in the feeding of farm animals and poultry
194 kb

GROWING SUMMER POTATO WITH IRRIGATION ON FLOOD LANDS OF SOUTH RUSSIA

abstract 1071503013 issue 107 pp. 207 – 218 31.03.2015 ru 912
The article is devoted to the study of growth peculiarities of summer potato on floodplain lands of Southern Russia. High and stable yields in big farms are possible using substantiated planting time of potato which depends on specific soil – climatic conditions of the area as well as potato cultivation technology elements improvement under irrigation. The latter will provide in turn water and power resources economy. The results of field research to determine planting time allow defining the most favorable conditions for potato cultivation in the given soil-climatic zone. The analysis of data obtained on differential irrigation regimes gives a possibility to determine common regularities of irrigation standards impact on potato growth efficiency. The regime proposed is in conformity with the concept of ecological land reclamation and takes into account a moderate anthropogenic impact on landscape processes under a permissible level of summer potato productivity decrease. Therefore proposed optimal time of summer planting and rational irrigation regime will increase industrial efficiency of potato production and provide environmental safety of irrigation on floodplain lands of South Russia while allowing to economize water and power resources
154 kb

MICROELEMENTS IN SUNFLOWER CROPS

abstract 1071503039 issue 107 pp. 563 – 577 31.03.2015 ru 1068
The obtained experimental data show that the incorporation of trace elements into the system of the sunflower crop has a positive impact on the mineral nutrition of plants, the number and quality of the crop. Foliar feeding of sunflower crops with micronutrients improves nutrition of plants with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, thus creating the preconditions for the formation of highly agrocenosis. The seed yield of sunflower increased by variants with application of micronutrients 1.2-3.5 t/ha or 4.4-12.9 percent. The greatest impact of treatment with boron and copper, exceeding the background option 3.1-3.5 t/ha or 11.5-12.9% respectively. The crop is least influenced by manganese and molybdenum. The examined elements positively influenced the structure of the sunflower crop. The greatest influence on the diameter of the basket, the number of seeds, weight of seeds in the basket, the weight of 1000 seeds was provided by the zinc and copper. Trace elements contributed to the improvement of quality indicators of sunflower. For husk content, the greatest positive effect was cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper, increasing the background option 10.1, 10.4, 10.5 and 10, and 6%, respectively, on the oil content of sunflower seeds had cobalt, copper and zinc. The oil content on these options amounted 55,0, with 55.1 and 55.2%, respectively, increasing this figure by 1.5 to 1.7 %. The acid number at variants with boron, manganese and zinc was the same with the background option and amounted to 1.8. The greatest influence on iodine number provided molybdenum, zinc and copper, which accounted for 170,5, 171,2 and 171,4, exceeding the background option 10.2 and 11.1
176 kb

CONTENT AND STATE OF IRON IN WEST LEACHED CHERNOZEMIC SOILS OF WESTERN CISCAUCASIA UNDER CONDITIONS OF AGROGENESIS

abstract 1071503066 issue 107 pp. 967 – 983 31.03.2015 ru 1414
The results of study of groups and forms of iron compounds in leached chernozemic soils of Western Ciscaucasia for three crop rotations according to scheme grain-grass-hoeing are presented. With long-term use of leached black soil in terms of Agrigento there is a substantial change in the contents of the various groups and iron compounds. On the non-fertilized variant of rotation, the total content of this element in the 0-20 cm 21-40 cm soil layer by 69.4 and 66.5% of silicate and by 30.6% and 33.5% free group of compounds of iron. The applied system of fertilizer crop rotation helps reduce the silicate and increase of free group its compounds. In leached black soil a group of desilicated iron in the 0-20 cm layer 24.8 % presents crystallizability and to 75.2% amorphous compounds, 21-40 cm layer, respectively, 26.2 and 73,8 %. Under the influence of fertilizers we have noticed increasing of amorphous and reducing the number of cristallizing forms of the compounds of this element the soil. The number of different groups and forms of iron compounds in leached black soil with systematic use of fertilizers in crop rotation is determined not by the size of introducing this element as impurities, and processes such as the alienation of iron with additional derived products, increase its mobility in the soil due to a shift in the reaction of the soil solution, changes in fractional-group composition of humus. Diagnostic criteria state of iron in the soil are leached quantitative ratio of the content of the various groups and forms of the compounds of this element
231 kb

SCIENTIFIC BASE OF USING COMPLEX MICROFERTILIZERS IN RICE GROWING

abstract 1071503073 issue 107 pp. 1092 – 1115 31.03.2015 ru 1007
This article is a review work where the role of microelements in life of plants is observed and theoretical and practical issues concerning application of complex microfertilizers enhancing productivity, quality of seeds and grain on rice crops are highlighted. The complexions of the metals used as micronutrients, are an effective form of trace elements and means of regulation of the production process of agricultural crops as seed treatment before sowing, and when conducting foliar vegetating plants. Their inclusion in the system of fertilizer rice to balance mineral nutrients necessary for plant life, providing increased productivity, quality seeds and grains
141 kb

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF PEA AND CHICKPEA GRAIN IN DROUGHT CONDITIONS

abstract 1071503092 issue 107 pp. 1416 – 1425 31.03.2015 ru 1263
The article presents materials on comparative study of the nutritional value of chickpeas and peas which are widespread in the arid zone of the Southern Urals. The scheme of the scientific and economic experiments involved the assessment of yield formation of chickpeas and peas during the vegetation. The study showed that different varieties of chickpea and pea have considerable difference in the content of nutrients. The amount of crude protein in the pea grain ranged from 25.1 to 26.8%, and chickpea – 21.7 - 22.9%. With regard to the fat, its highest concentration was in chickpea grain - 3.63%, on average, which is 1.16% higher than on average in the pea grain. The chemical composition of the pea and chickpea grain of different varieties points to differences in their composition and homogeneity within the culture. Basing on the study, we recommend to sow chickpea and pea grain in the middle of May to obtain the highest yield, this, in turn, has a positive effect on the nutritional value of the crops. When selecting plants for cultivation in the conditions of the Southern Urals, it is preferable to choose the variety of Madonna pea, which has a higher potential for yield than the chickpea variety Krasnokutsky-123. It has been experimentally found that chickpea grain has better moisture-retaining power in a bound condition during the vegetation period as compared to the relevant characteristics of pea grain, which is a positive drought-resistant value of crop. In structural elements of the harvest the peas showed the trend of the highest rates in comparison with the corresponding elements in chickpeas
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